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Pharmaceutics ; 14(3)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765814


BACKGROUND: Immunogenicity refers to the inherent ability of a molecule to stimulate an immune response. Aggregates are one of the major risk factors for the undesired immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies (Ab) and may ultimately result in immune-mediated adverse effects. For Ab delivered by inhalation, it is necessary to consider the interaction between aggregates resulting from the instability of the Ab during aerosolization and the lung mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of aggregates produced during aerosolization of therapeutic Ab on the immune system. METHODS: Human and murine immunoglobulin G (IgG) were aerosolized using a clinically-relevant nebulizer and their immunogenic potency was assessed, both in vitro using a standard human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDC) reporter assay and in vivo in immune cells in the airway compartment, lung parenchyma and spleen of healthy C57BL/6 mice after pulmonary administration. RESULTS: IgG aggregates, produced during nebulization, induced a dose-dependent activation of MoDC characterized by the enhanced production of cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory markers. Interestingly, in vivo administration of high amounts of nebulization-mediated IgG aggregates resulted in a profound and sustained local and systemic depletion of immune cells, which was attributable to cell death. This cytotoxic effect was observed when nebulized IgG was administered locally in the airways as compared to a systemic administration but was mitigated by improving IgG stability during nebulization, through the addition of polysorbates to the formulation. CONCLUSION: Although inhalation delivery represents an attractive alternative route for delivering Ab to treat respiratory infections, our findings indicate that it is critical to prevent IgG aggregation during the nebulization process to avoid pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects. The optimization of Ab formulation can mitigate adverse effects induced by nebulization.

BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048591, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495462


INTRODUCTION: Pre-emptive inhaled antibiotics may be effective to reduce the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia among critically ill patients. Meta-analysis of small sample size trials showed a favourable signal. Inhaled antibiotics are associated with a reduced emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the benefit of a 3-day course of inhaled antibiotics among patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 3 days on the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Academic, investigator-initiated, parallel two group arms, double-blind, multicentre superiority randomised controlled trial. Patients invasively ventilated more than 3 days will be randomised to receive 20 mg/kg inhaled amikacin daily for 3 days or inhaled placebo (0.9% Sodium Chloride). Occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia will be recorded based on a standardised diagnostic framework from randomisation to day 28 and adjudicated by a centralised blinded committee. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol and amendments have been approved by the regional ethics review board and French competent authorities (Comité de protection des personnes Ouest I, No.2016-R29). All patients will be included after informed consent according to French law. Results will be disseminated in international scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2016-001054-17 and NCT03149640.

Amikacin , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Administration, Inhalation , Amikacin/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome