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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319766

ABSTRACT

Here, we describe the preliminary results of an experimental vaccination of a self-experimenting healthy volunteer with eight SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides: five predicted to bind to HLA class I molecules (CD8 peptides) and three predicted to bind to HLA-DR molecules (CD4 peptides). The vaccine formulation also included one long and one short CMV-pp65-derived peptide that had previously been administered to the same individual and could thus act as positive controls. It further contained the new adjuvant XS15 and was administered as an emulsion in Montanide as a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from blood drawn on day 36 before vaccination and day 19 after vaccination were assessed using an ex vivo Interferon-γ ELISpot assay. We detected strong vaccine-induced T-cell responses against all four CD4 peptides and against the recall CMV CD8 epitope, but found no immune responses against the five predicted SARS-CoV-2 CD8 peptides. Antibody reactivity against all the SARS-CoV-2 CD4 peptides, as detected using ELISA, was negative or marginal. We interpret these results in terms of the prospects of a therapeutic vaccine to be applied in symptomatic COVID-19 patients. An advantage of this approach is the possibility to assess efficacy or failure within a short time after vaccination.

2.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(11): 2665-2676, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482126

ABSTRACT

To monitor infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and successful vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the kinetics of neutralizing or blocking anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers need to be assessed. Here, we report the development of a quick and inexpensive surrogate SARS-CoV-2 blocking assay (SUBA) using immobilized recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and human cells expressing the native form of surface SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Spike protein-expressing cells bound to hACE2 in the absence or presence of blocking antibodies were quantified by measuring the optical density of cell-associated crystal violet in a spectrophotometer. The advantages are that SUBA is a fast and inexpensive assay, which does not require biosafety level 2- or 3-approved laboratories. Most importantly, SUBA detects blocking antibodies against the native trimeric cell-bound SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and can be rapidly adjusted to quickly pre-screen already approved therapeutic antibodies or sera from vaccinated individuals for their ACE2 blocking activities against any emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Blocking/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry/methods , Antibodies, Blocking/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 730766, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463473

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread to all parts of the world and can cause life-threatening pneumonia and other severe disease manifestations known as COVID-19. This health crisis has resulted in a significant effort to stop the spread of this new coronavirus. However, while propagating itself in the human population, the virus accumulates mutations and generates new variants with increased fitness and the ability to escape the human immune response. Here we describe a color-based barcoded spike flow cytometric assay (BSFA) that is particularly useful to evaluate and directly compare the humoral immune response directed against either wild type (WT) or mutant spike (S) proteins or the receptor-binding domains (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. This assay employs the human B lymphoma cell line Ramos, transfected for stable expression of WT or mutant S proteins or a chimeric RBD-CD8 fusion protein. We find that the alpha and beta mutants are more stably expressed than the WT S protein on the Ramos B cell surface and/or bind with higher affinity to the viral entry receptor ACE2. However, we find a reduce expression of the chimeric RBD-CD8 carrying the point mutation N501Y and E484K characteristic for the alpha and beta variant, respectively. The comparison of the humoral immune response of 12 vaccinated probands with 12 COVID-19 patients shows that after the boost, the S-specific IgG class immune response in the vaccinated group is similar to that of the patient group. However, in comparison to WT the specific IgG serum antibodies bind less well to the alpha variant and only poorly to the beta variant S protein. This is in line with the notion that the beta variant is an immune escape variant of SARS-CoV-2. The IgA class immune response was more variable than the IgG response and higher in the COVID-19 patients than in the vaccinated group. In summary, we think that our BSFA represents a useful tool to evaluate the humoral immunity against emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 and to analyze new vaccination protocols against these variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Separation/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201386

ABSTRACT

We describe the results of two vaccinations of a self-experimenting healthy volunteer with SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides performed in March and April 2020, respectively. The first set of peptides contained eight peptides predicted to bind to the individual's HLA molecules. The second set consisted of ten peptides predicted to bind promiscuously to several HLA-DR allotypes. The vaccine formulation contained the new TLR 1/2 agonist XS15 and was administered as an emulsion in Montanide as a single subcutaneous injection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from blood drawn before and after vaccinations were assessed using Interferon-γ ELISpot assays and intracellular cytokine staining. We detected vaccine-induced CD4 T cell responses against six out of 11 peptides predicted to bind to HLA-DR after 19 days, following vaccination, for one peptide already at day 12. We used these results to support the design of a T-cell-inducing vaccine for application in high-risk patients, with weakened lymphocyte performance. Meanwhile, an according vaccine, incorporating T cell epitopes predominant in convalescents, is undergoing clinical trial testing.

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