Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 42
Filter
1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 839367, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771040

ABSTRACT

Defining immune correlates of disease severity is important to better understand the immunopathogenesis in COVID-19. Here we made use of a protein microarray platform to detect IgG- and IgA-reactive antibodies in sera and saliva respectively, and assess cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic coronaviruses (eCoVs). IgG responses against the full protein of spike, but not the S1 subunit, were significantly higher in convalescent sera of patients with severe disease compared to mild disease and healthy controls. In addition, we detected reactivity of secretory IgA to eCoVs in saliva of patients with severe disease, not present in patients with moderate disease or seropositive healthy controls. These heterologous immune responses are in line with non-protective cross-reactivity, and support a potential role for immune imprinting in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunity , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330860

ABSTRACT

Variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2 have caused resurging waves of infections worldwide. In the Netherlands, Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta variants circulated widely between September 2020 and August 2021. To understand how various control measures had impacted the spread of these VOCs, we analyzed 39,844 SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected under the Dutch national surveillance program. We found that all four VOCs were introduced before targeted flight restrictions were imposed on countries where the VOCs first emerged. Importantly, foreign introductions, predominantly from other European countries, continued during these restrictions. Our findings show that flight restrictions had limited effectiveness in deterring VOC introductions due to the strength of regional land travel importation risks. We also found that the Alpha and Delta variants largely circulated more populous regions with international connections after their respective introduction before asymmetric bidirectional transmissions occurred with the rest of the country and the variant dominated infections in the Netherlands. As countries consider scaling down SARS-CoV-2 surveillance efforts in the post-crisis phase of the pandemic, our results highlight that robust surveillance in regions of early spread is important for providing timely information for variant detection and outbreak control.

3.
Vaccine ; 40(15): 2251-2257, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With COVID-19 vaccine roll-out ongoing in many countries globally, monitoring of breakthrough infections is of great importance. Antibodies persist in the blood after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Since COVID-19 vaccines induce immune response to the Spike protein of the virus, which is the main serosurveillance target to date, alternative targets should be explored to distinguish infection from vaccination. METHODS: Multiplex immunoassay data from 1,513 SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR-tested individuals (352 positive and 1,161 negative) without COVID-19 vaccination history were used to determine the accuracy of Nucleoprotein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in detecting past SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also described Spike S1 and Nucleoprotein-specific IgG responses in 230 COVID-19 vaccinated individuals (Pfizer/BioNTech). RESULTS: The sensitivity of Nucleoprotein seropositivity was 85% (95% confidence interval: 80-90%) for mild COVID-19 in the first two months following symptom onset. Sensitivity was lower in asymptomatic individuals (67%, 50-81%). Participants who had experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection up to 11 months preceding vaccination, as assessed by Spike S1 seropositivity or RT-qPCR, produced 2.7-fold higher median levels of IgG to Spike S1 ≥ 14 days after the first dose as compared to those unexposed to SARS-CoV-2 at ≥ 7 days after the second dose (p = 0.011). Nucleoprotein-specific IgG concentrations were not affected by vaccination in infection-naïve participants. CONCLUSIONS: Serological responses to Nucleoprotein may prove helpful in identifying SARS-CoV-2 infections after vaccination. Furthermore, it can help interpret IgG to Spike S1 after COVID-19 vaccination as particularly high responses shortly after vaccination could be explained by prior exposure history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Nucleoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329293

ABSTRACT

Using a recently introduced efficient mass spectrometry-based approach we monitored in molecular detail the IgG1 clonal responses in individual donorsindividual donors’ IgG1 clonal responses in molecular detail, examining SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-specific IgG1 repertoires. We monitored the plasma clonal IgG1 profiles of 8 donors (4 male and 4 female) who had recently experienced an infection by either the wild type Wuhan Hu-1 virus or one of 3 VOCs (Alpha, Beta and Gamma). In these donors we charted the full plasma IgG1 repertoires as well as the IgG1 repertoires targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein trimer as antigen. We observed that shortly after infection in between <0.1% to almost 10% of all IgG1 antibody molecules present in plasma did bind to the spike protein. Each donor displayed a unique plasma IgG1 repertoire, but also each donor displayed a unique and polyclonal antibody response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein variants. Our analyses revealed that certain clones exhibit (alike) binding affinity towards all four tested spike-protein variants, whereas other clones displayed strong unique mutant-specific affinity. We conclude that each infected person generates a unique polyclonal response following infection, whereby some of these clones can bind multiple viral variants, whereas other clones do not display such cross-reactivity. In general, by assessing IgG1 repertoires following infection it becomes possible to identify and select fully matured human plasma antibodies that target specific antigens, and display either high specificity or cross-reactivity versus mutated versions of the antigen, which will aid in selecting antibodies that may be developed into biotherapeutics.

5.
Euro Surveill ; 27(6)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708966

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has a growth advantage over the Delta variant because of higher transmissibility, immune evasion or shorter serial interval. Using S gene target failure (SGTF) as indication for Omicron BA.1, we identified 908 SGTF and 1,621 non-SGTF serial intervals in the same period. Within households, the mean serial interval for SGTF cases was 0.2-0.6 days shorter than for non-SGTF cases. This suggests that the growth advantage of Omicron is partly due to a shorter serial interval.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Netherlands
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306935

ABSTRACT

Background: Cases of reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 are reported in increasing numbers. Since the required molecular proof of reinfection is challenging to obtain, we aimed to provide serological evidence of reinfection in a cohort of potential reinfection cases.Methods: The study comprises 38 RT-PCR confirmed reinfection cases, with a COVID-19 symptom-free interval of at least 8 weeks (range 57-133 days) since their first RT-PCR confirmed episode. Specific disease symptoms were retrieved from 22 cases by contact tracing and compared between the two disease episodes. The oropharyngeal specimens from 13 cases enabled adequate genomic sequence comparisons. Seventeen cases provided a serum specimen, of which 12 within 7 days after onset of symptoms. Antibody determinations included SARS-CoV-2-specific total Ig, IgM, IgG, avidity, and virus neutralization. Antibody data were compared to that of a control group of primary cases (n=86) in relation to time since onset of disease symptoms.Findings: Reinfection cases generally experienced fewer or milder symptoms. Five of 8 cases which passed genomic comparison between both disease episodes showed reinfection with a different lineage. From 12 reinfection cases that provided a serum sample within 7 days after onset of symptoms, 11/12 (92%) and 12/12 (100%) showed high levels of specific total Ig and IgG antibodies, respectively, compared to 1/23 (4%) and 2/23 (9%) within the control group. Virus neutralizing antibodies were detected in 9/12 (75%) reinfection cases, 5 of which were above a titer of 30. Serological discrimination diminished after 7 days, except for IgG avidity;all 17 reinfection cases had antibodies of higher avidity when compared to control cases.Interpretation: IgG concentration and avidity can be used as an additional diagnostic marker to confirm reinfection with SARS-Cov-2. Reinfection cases that show a rapid and effective secondary immune response are expected to clear the infection more effectively, thereby reducing contagiousness and clinical severity. Understanding this reinfection response is also important for breakthrough infections following vaccination.Funding Statement: This work was supported by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands.Declaration of Interests: None of the authors have an association that poses a conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: Approved by the Medical-Ethical Review Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321757

ABSTRACT

The world is combating an ongoing COVID-19 pandemic 1-4 . Health-care systems, society and the economy are impacted in an unprecedented way. It is unclear how many people have contracted the causative coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) unknowingly. Therefore, reported COVID-19 cases do not reflect the true scale of outbreak 5-9 . Natural herd immunity has been suggested as a potential exit strategy during COVID-19 outbreaks, which may arise when 50-67% of a community has been infected 10 . Here we present the prevalence and distribution of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in a healthy adult population of a highly affected country using a novel immunoassay, indicating that one month into the outbreak (i) the seroprevalence in the Netherlands is 2.7% with substantial regional variation, (ii) the hardest-hit areas show a seroprevalence of up to 9.5%, (iii) the seroprevalence is sex-independent throughout age groups (18-72 years), (iv) antibodies are significantly more often detected in younger people (18-30 years), and (v) the number of immune individuals in the current epidemic stage is far below the herd immunity threshold. This study provides vital information on the extent of virus spread in a country where social distancing is in place, concluding that herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is not a realistic short-term exit strategy option.

8.
O'Toole, Áine, Hill, Verity, Pybus, Oliver, Watts, Alexander, Bogoch, Issac, Khan, Kamran, Messina, Jane, Tegally, Houriiyah, Lessells, Richard, Giandhari, Jennifer, Pillay, Sureshnee, Tumedi, Kefentse Arnold, Nyepetsi, Gape, Kebabonye, Malebogo, Matsheka, Maitshwarelo, Mine, Madisa, Tokajian, Sima, Hassan, Hamad, Salloum, Tamara, Merhi, Georgi, Koweyes, Jad, Geoghegan, Jemma, de Ligt, Joep, Ren, Xiaoyun, Storey, Matthew, Freed, Nikki, Pattabiraman, Chitra, Prasad, Pramada, Desai, Anita, Vasanthapuram, Ravi, Schulz, Thomas, Steinbrück, Lars, Stadler, Tanja, Parisi, Antonio, Bianco, Angelica, García de Viedma, Darío, Buenestado-Serrano, Sergio, Borges, Vítor, Isidro, Joana, Duarte, Sílvia, Gomes, João Paulo, Zuckerman, Neta, Mandelboim, Michal, Mor, Orna, Seemann, Torsten, Arnott, Alicia, Draper, Jenny, Gall, Mailie, Rawlinson, William, Deveson, Ira, Schlebusch, Sanmarié, McMahon, Jamie, Leong, Lex, Lim, Chuan Kok, Chironna, Maria, Loconsole, Daniela, Bal, Antonin, Josset, Laurence, Holmes, Edward, St. George, Kirsten, Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica, Sikkema, Reina, Oude Munnink, Bas, Koopmans, Marion, Brytting, Mia, Sudha rani, V.; Pavani, S.; Smura, Teemu, Heim, Albert, Kurkela, Satu, Umair, Massab, Salman, Muhammad, Bartolini, Barbara, Rueca, Martina, Drosten, Christian, Wolff, Thorsten, Silander, Olin, Eggink, Dirk, Reusken, Chantal, Vennema, Harry, Park, Aekyung, Carrington, Christine, Sahadeo, Nikita, Carr, Michael, Gonzalez, Gabo, de Oliveira, Tulio, Faria, Nuno, Rambaut, Andrew, Kraemer, Moritz, The, Covid-Genomics U. K. consortium, Network for Genomic Surveillance in South, Africa, Brazil, U. K. Cadde Genomic Network, Swiss Viollier Sequencing, Consortium, Diego, Search Alliance San, National Virus Reference, Laboratory, Seq, Covid Spain, Danish Covid-19 Genome, Consortium, Communicable Diseases Genomic, Network, Dutch National, Sars-CoV-surveillance program, Division of Emerging Infectious, Diseases.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318194

ABSTRACT

Late in 2020, two genetically-distinct clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mutations of biological concern were reported, one in the United Kingdom and one in South Africa. Using a combination of data from routine surveillance, genomic sequencing and international travel we track the international dispersal of lineages B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 (variant 501Y-V2). We account for potential biases in genomic surveillance efforts by including passenger volumes from location of where the lineage was first reported, London and South Africa respectively. Using the software tool grinch (global report investigating novel coronavirus haplotypes), we track the international spread of lineages of concern with automated daily reports, Further, we have built a custom tracking website (cov-lineages.org/global_report.html) which hosts this daily report and will continue to include novel SARS-CoV-2 lineages of concern as they are detected.

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327472

ABSTRACT

Given the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant and the roll-out of booster COVID-19 vaccination, evidence is needed on protection conferred by primary vaccination, booster vaccination and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection against Omicron BA.1 compared with Delta infection. We employed a test-negative design and used multinomial logistic regression on data from community PCR testing in the Netherlands, from 22 November 2021 to 19 January 2022. S-gene target failure (SGTF) was used as proxy for Omicron BA.1 infection versus Delta. A total of 528,488 tests were included, of which 38,975 SGTF and 41,245 non-SGTF infections. Protection from primary vaccination was 33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 31-35) and from previous infection 25% (95% CI: 21-29) against Omicron BA.1 infection. Protection against Delta infection was higher with 76% (95% CI: 75-76) for primary vaccination and 78% (95% CI: 76-80) for previous infection. Higher protection was observed in individuals with both primary vaccination and earlier infection compared with either one. Waning of vaccine- or infection-induced protection over time was observed against both variants. Booster vaccination considerably increased vaccine effectiveness against Omicron BA.1 to 76% (95% CI: 72-79) and 68% (95% CI: 67-69) with and without previous infection, respectively. Primary vaccination with current COVID-19 vaccines and pre-Omicron SARS-CoV-2 infections offer low protection against Omicron BA.1 infection. Booster vaccination considerably increases protection against Omicron BA.1, although protection remains lower than against Delta.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 52-58, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Indoor environments are considered one of the main settings for transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Households in particular represent a close-contact environment with high probability of transmission between persons of different ages and roles in society. METHODS: Households with a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive case in the Netherlands (March-May 2020) were included. At least 3 home visits were performed during 4-6 weeks of follow-up, collecting naso- and oropharyngeal swabs, oral fluid, feces and blood samples from all household members for molecular and serological analyses. Symptoms were recorded from 2 weeks before the first visit through to the final visit. Infection secondary attack rates (SAR) were estimated with logistic regression. A transmission model was used to assess household transmission routes. RESULTS: A total of 55 households with 187 household contacts were included. In 17 households no transmission took place; in 11 households all persons were infected. Estimated infection SARs were high, ranging from 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24%-46%) in children to 51% (95% CI, 39%-63%) in adults. Estimated transmission rates in the household were high, with reduced susceptibility of children compared with adolescents and adults (0.67; 95% CI, .40-1.1). CONCLUSION: Estimated infection SARs were higher than reported in earlier household studies, presumably owing to our dense sampling protocol. Children were shown to be less susceptible than adults, but the estimated infection SAR in children was still high. Our results reinforce the role of households as one of the main multipliers of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Disease Susceptibility , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence
12.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295526

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) show reduced neutralization by vaccine-induced and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We tested therapeutic equine polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against four VoC (alpha, beta, epsilon and gamma). We show that equine pAbs efficiently neutralize VoC, suggesting they are an effective, broad coverage, low-cost and a scalable COVID-19 treatment.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292832

ABSTRACT

The extent to which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC) break through infection- or vaccine-induced immunity is not well understood. Here, we analyze 28,578 sequenced SARS-CoV-2 samples from individuals with known immune status obtained through national community testing in the Netherlands from March to August 2021. We find evidence for an increased risk of infection by the Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), or Delta (B.1.617.2) variants compared to the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant after vaccination. No clear differences were found between vaccines. However, the effect was larger in the first 14-59 days after complete vaccination compared to 60 days and longer. In contrast to vaccine-induced immunity, no increased risk for reinfection with Beta, Gamma or Delta variants relative to Alpha variant was found in individuals with infection-induced immunity.

14.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0076721, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501529

ABSTRACT

In response to the worldwide pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the subsequent antibody tests that flooded the market, a nationwide collaborative approach in the Netherlands was employed. Forty-one Dutch laboratories joined forces and shared their evaluation data to allow for the evaluation of a quantity of serological assays for SARS-CoV-2 that exceeds the capacity of each individual laboratory. As of April 2020, these performance data had been aggregated and shared in regularly updated reports with other laboratories, Dutch government, public health organizations, and the public. This frequently updated overview of assay performance increased the efficiency of our national laboratory response, supporting laboratories in their choice and implementation of assays. Aggregated performance data for 47 immunoassays for SARS-CoV-2 showed that none of the evaluated immunoassays that detect only IgM or IgA met the diagnostic criteria, indicating that they are not suitable for diagnosing acute infections. For the detection of IgG, only the Biozek Corona virus COVID rapid test, Euroimmun SARS-CoV-2 IgG, and Wantai SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab) ELISA met predefined performance criteria in hospitalized patients where samples were collected 14 days post-onset of symptoms (DPO), while for patients with mild or asymptomatic infections, only the Wantai SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA met the predefined performance criteria if samples were collected 14 days postonset. Here, we describe this unique nationwide collaboration during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic; the collected data and their results are an example of what can be accomplished when forces are joined during a public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin M , Laboratories , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109773, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442298

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is less severe than it is in adults. We perform a longitudinal analysis of the early innate responses in children and adults with mild infection within household clusters. Children display fewer symptoms than adults do, despite similar initial viral load, and mount a robust anti-viral immune signature typical of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and characterized by early interferon gene responses; increases in cytokines, such as CXCL10 and GM-CSF; and changes in blood cell numbers. When compared with adults, the antiviral response resolves faster (within a week of symptoms), monocytes and dendritic cells are more transiently activated, and genes associated with B cell activation appear earlier in children. Nonetheless, these differences do not have major effects on the quality of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses. Our findings reveal that better early control of inflammation as observed in children may be key for rapidly controlling infection and limiting the disease course.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcriptome , Adaptive Immunity , Adolescent , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Infant , Inflammation/virology , Interferons/metabolism , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Viral Load , Young Adult
16.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 137, 2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440955

ABSTRACT

We describe the lessons learned during a SARS-CoV-2 variant-of-concern Alpha outbreak investigation at a normal care unit in a university hospital in Amsterdam in December 2020. The outbreak consisted of nine nurses and two roomed-in patient family members. (attack rate 18%). One nurse tested positive with a phylogenetically distinct variant, after a documented infection 83 days prior. Three key points were taken from this investigation. First, it was controlled by adherence to existing guidelines, despite increased transmissibility of the variant. Second, viral sequencing can inform transmission cluster inference, but the epidemiological context is essential to draw appropriate conclusions. Third, reinfections with Alpha variants can occur rapidly after primary infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/virology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Infection Control , Inpatients , Netherlands , Nurses , Phylogeny , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 735853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436006

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern show reduced neutralization by vaccine-induced and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies; therefore, treatment alternatives are needed. We tested therapeutic equine polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) that are being assessed in clinical trials in Costa Rica against five globally circulating variants of concern: alpha, beta, epsilon, gamma and delta, using plaque reduction neutralization assays. We show that equine pAbs efficiently neutralize the variants of concern, with inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0.146-1.078 µg/mL, which correspond to extremely low concentrations when compared to pAbs doses used in clinical trials. Equine pAbs are an effective, broad coverage, low-cost and a scalable COVID-19 treatment.

18.
Sci Adv ; 7(36): eabj5365, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403006

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) pose a threat to human immunity induced by natural infection and vaccination. We assessed the recognition of three VOCs (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) in cohorts of COVID-19 convalescent patients (n = 69) and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine recipients (n = 50). Spike binding and neutralization against all three VOCs were substantially reduced in most individuals, with the largest four- to sevenfold reduction in neutralization being observed against B.1.351. While hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and vaccinees maintained sufficient neutralizing titers against all three VOCs, 39% of nonhospitalized patients exhibited no detectable neutralization against B.1.351. Moreover, monoclonal neutralizing antibodies show sharp reductions in their binding kinetics and neutralizing potential to B.1.351 and P.1 but not to B.1.1.7. These data have implications for the degree to which pre-existing immunity can protect against subsequent infection with VOCs and informs policy makers of susceptibility to globally circulating SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0076721, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365127

ABSTRACT

In response to the worldwide pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the subsequent antibody tests that flooded the market, a nationwide collaborative approach in the Netherlands was employed. Forty-one Dutch laboratories joined forces and shared their evaluation data to allow for the evaluation of a quantity of serological assays for SARS-CoV-2 that exceeds the capacity of each individual laboratory. As of April 2020, these performance data had been aggregated and shared in regularly updated reports with other laboratories, Dutch government, public health organizations, and the public. This frequently updated overview of assay performance increased the efficiency of our national laboratory response, supporting laboratories in their choice and implementation of assays. Aggregated performance data for 47 immunoassays for SARS-CoV-2 showed that none of the evaluated immunoassays that detect only IgM or IgA met the diagnostic criteria, indicating that they are not suitable for diagnosing acute infections. For the detection of IgG, only the Biozek Corona virus COVID rapid test, Euroimmun SARS-CoV-2 IgG, and Wantai SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab) ELISA met predefined performance criteria in hospitalized patients where samples were collected 14 days post-onset of symptoms (DPO), while for patients with mild or asymptomatic infections, only the Wantai SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA met the predefined performance criteria if samples were collected 14 days postonset. Here, we describe this unique nationwide collaboration during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic; the collected data and their results are an example of what can be accomplished when forces are joined during a public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin M , Laboratories , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Euro Surveill ; 26(27)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304570

ABSTRACT

We compared the performance of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody testing between 12 European laboratories involved in convalescent plasma trials. Raw titres differed almost 100-fold differences between laboratories when blind-testing 15 plasma samples. Calibration of titres in relation to the reference reagent and standard curve obtained by testing a dilution series reduced the inter-laboratory variability ca 10-fold. The harmonisation of neutralising antibody quantification is a vital step towards determining the protective and therapeutic levels of neutralising antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Europe , Humans , Immunization, Passive
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL