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1.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006146

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women with GDM affected by COVID-19 seem to be at higher risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, especially those with overweight or obesity. Good glycemic control seems to be the most effective measure in reducing the risk of GDM and severe COVID-19. For such purposes, the Mediterranean diet, micronutrient supplementation, and physical activity are considered the first line of treatment. Failure to achieve glycemic control leads to the use of insulin, and this clinical scenario has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this review, we explore the current evidence pertaining to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 leading to the main complications caused by COVID-19 in patients with GDM. We also discuss the incidence of complications caused by COVID-19 in pregnant women with GDM according to their treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes, Gestational , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987905

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or CoV-2) pandemic in 2019 and the risk of CoV-2 infection during pregnancy led the scientific community to investigate the potential negative effects of Coronavirus infection on pregnancy outcomes and fetal development. In particular, as CoV-2 neurotropism has been demonstrated in adults, recent studies suggested a possible risk of fetal brain damage and fetal brain development impairment, with consequent psychiatric manifestations in offspring of mothers affected by COronaVIrus Disease (COVID) during pregnancy. Through the understanding of CoV-2's pathogenesis and the pathways responsible for cell damage, along with the available data about neurotropic virus attitudes, different strategies have been suggested to lower the risk of neurologic disease in newborns. In this regard, the role of nutrition in mitigating fetal damages related to oxidative stress and the inflammatory environment during viral infection has been investigated, and arginine, n3PUFA, vitamins B1 and B9, choline, and flavonoids were found to be promising in and out of pregnancy. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the mechanism of fetal brain damage and the impact of nutrition in reducing inflammation related to worse neurological outcomes in the context of CoV-2 infections during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Brain , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115413

ABSTRACT

This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate whether women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy are at higher risk of noninvasive prenatal screening test alterations and/or of congenital fetal anomalies at the second-trimester fetal anatomy scan. Maternal symptoms were secondly investigated. The study was carried out on 12-week pregnant women admitted for noninvasive prenatal testing (16 April and 22 June 2020). The cohort had seromolecular tests for SARS-CoV-2, after which they were divided into a positive case group and a negative control group. Both groups had 20-week ultrasound screening. Seventeen out of the 164 women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (10.3%). There were no significant differences in mean nuchal translucency thickness or biochemical markers (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, unconjugated estriol) between cases and controls (p = 0.77, 0.63, 0.30, 0.40, 0.28) or in the fetal incidence of structural anomalies at the second-trimester fetal anatomy scan (p = 0.21). No pneumonia or hospital admission due to COVID-19-related symptoms were observed. Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy did not predispose affected women to more fetal anomalies than unaffected women. COVID-19 had a favorable maternal course at the beginning of pregnancy in our healthy cohort.

4.
J Reprod Immunol ; 144: 103285, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062496

ABSTRACT

We report herein the longest-lasting study of SARS-CoV-2 antibody profile in pregnancy, from first trimester-infection to delivery. Seventeen out of 164 pregnant women tested positive for COVID-19. Throughout pregnancy, the neutralizing antibody titer remained stable, whilst a significant decline in the non-neutralizing antibodies was observed after 16 weeks of gestation. All the newborns of women who developed IgG antibodies showed the presence of the same antibodies in arterial cord blood. Knowledge on the longevity and type of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response may help to guide vaccination strategies in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 253: 148-153, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE(S): to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on infertile couples' emotions, anxiety and future plans. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study was perfomed by Italian ART centers and online forums. In this study, infertile couples candidate to ART and whose treatment was blocked due to the COVID-19 lockdown were enrolled through an online survey. The psychological impact of COVID-19 was measured by Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and by a short form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI); Self-perceived anxiety related either to pregnancy safety and to economic crisis measured by VAS scale. RESULTS: 627 patients completed the survey. The COVID-19 lock-down had a moderate/severe psychological impact on infertile patients (mean IES-R score 36.4 ± 16.6). The mean STAI score was 49.8 ± 15.3, with an overall incidence of STAI > 36 of 71 %. The mean VAS scale for anxiety perception was 45.3 ± 15.3. Women were more emotionally distressed, anxious and depressed than men (36.8 ± 16.4 vs 31.0 ± 18.4 for IES-R, respectively; p = 0.03). Notwithstanding the uncertainty about pregnancy safety, 64.6 % of respondents chose to maintain their reproductive programme. Economic crisis induced 11.5 % of the surveyed patients to give up their ART program. Respondents who had at least one relative affected by COVID-19 had a significantly higher IES-R score and anxiety VAS, but not higher STAI scores, than patients belonging to unaffected families. CONCLUSION(S): COVID-19 pandemic itself and the recommendation to stop ART program generated higher distress levels in infertile couples. The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic in infertility patients should not be underestimated, and a specific psychological support should be planned.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Infertility/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emotions , Female , Health Status , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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