Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 169
Filter
1.
Reviews in Medical Virology ; n/a(n/a):e2359, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819394

ABSTRACT

Designing and manufacturing efficient vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major objective. In this systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the most important vaccines under construction worldwide, their efficiencies and clinical results in healthy individuals and in those with specific underlying diseases. We conducted a comprehensive search in PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Sciences by 1 December 2021 to identify published research studies. The inclusion criteria were publications that evaluated the immune responses and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in healthy individuals and in those with pre-existing diseases. We also searched the VAERS database to estimate the incidence of adverse events of special interest (AESI) post COVID-19 vaccination. Almost all investigated vaccines were well tolerated and developed good levels of both humoural and cellular responses. A protective and efficient humoural immune response develops after the second or third dose of vaccine and a longer interval (about 28 days) between the first and second injections of vaccine could induce higher antibody responses. The vaccines were less immunogenic in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with haematological malignancies. In addition, we found that venous and arterial thrombotic events, Bell's palsy, and myocarditis/pericarditis were the most common AESI. The results showed the potency of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to protect subjects against disease. The provision of further effective and safe vaccines is necessary in order to reach a high coverage of immunisation programs across the globe and to provide protection against infection itself.

2.
International Immunopharmacology ; : 108786, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799890

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged, causing a global pandemic called COVID-19. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for this emerging disease. Global efforts resulted in developing multiple platforms of COVID-19 vaccines, but their efficacy in humans should be wholly investigated in the long-term clinical and epidemiological follow-ups. Despite the international efforts, COVID-19 vaccination accompanies challenges, including financial and political obstacles, serious adverse effects (AEs), the impossibility of using vaccines in certain groups of people in the community, and viral evasion due to emerging novel variants of SARS-CoV-2 in many countries. For these reasons, passive immunotherapy has been considered a complementary remedy and a promising way to manage COVID-19. These approaches arebased on reduced inflammation due to inhibiting cytokine storm phenomena, immunomodulation,preventing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), viral neutralization, anddecreased viral load. This article highlights passive immunotherapy and immunomodulation approaches in managing and treating COVID-19 patients and discusses relevant clinical trials (CTs).

3.
Immunity, Inflammation and Disease ; 10(5):e618, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1797883

ABSTRACT

Introduction In November 26th, 2021 a new strain of SARS-CoV-2 was designated by the World Health Organization as a variant of concern and named Omicron. The news broadcasted a global wave of panic and anxiety while many, like 2 years ago, were making themselves ready for the holiday season. After almost a month of its designation, countries from all 6 continents have been reported Omicron from their genomic sequences. This triggered an international alarm about a new era in the Covid-19 pandemic, where despite the vast amount of vaccinations, a surge in new cases and hospitalizations are reported from all over the world. Methods Scientific literature published from November 26, 2021 to March 21, 2022 have been searched and retrieved by using ?SARS-COV-2?, ?Omicron?, ?B.1.1.529?, ?Covid-19?, and ?global community? keywords from ?PubMed?, 'Web o ?Google Scholar?, and ?MedRxiv? databases. Results Omicron have been evolved to spread faster than previous variants of concern, but it infects people lesser than other variants, Delta for example. Omicron can also escape vaccine-induced immunity more than previous SARS-CoV-2 variants. Discussion Despite possible lower lethal risks than previous strains, Omicron may provide populations with a higher community transmission and a higher hospitalization load, which potentially overwhelm already exhausted health care systems. Therefore, we need to get used to the ?New Normal? and maintain health recommendations to help decrease spreading of the virus and buy more time for the scientists to dive deeper into potential ways of tackling Covid-19, more than ever.

4.
J Eat Disord ; 10(1): 51, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and its related social restrictions have profoundly affected people's mental health. It can be assumed that symptomatic behaviors and mental health of individuals with eating disorders (ED) deteriorated during this time. To get a thorough overview, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with the following aims: First, to provide a comprehensive overview of symptoms of ED during the COVID-19-related confinement; second, to identify psychological mechanisms which impacted the emergence and maintenance of ED symptoms; third, to describe changes of daily routine and changes of access to healthcare in individuals with ED during confinement. METHODS: We searched Embase, PubMed, and Scopus databases for observational studies published between January 1st, 2020, to July 1st, 2021, which investigated the symptomatology of ED during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: After the screening, 13 studies with 7848 participants were included in the present systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of exacerbation of binge eating, food restriction, purging behaviors, and concerns about food intake in the pooled sample of 7848 was 59.65% (95% CI: 49.30%; 69.60%), and the overall prevalence of improved symptoms of ED in the pooled sample of 741 individuals was 9.37% (95% CI: 3.92%; 16.57%). Furthermore, COVID-19-related social restrictions negatively impacted the psychological health, daily routines, and physical activity of individuals with ED. More specifically, symptoms of anxiety and depression related to ED were increased significantly over time. However, there were also positive aspects to the COVID-19 pandemic. The main positive consequences included more emotional support from the family, less pressure to engage in social activities, and more flexible meal planning. Individuals with ED reported having difficulties getting access to healthcare centers and using telemedicine. They also found a hard time communicating via online sessions. CONCLUSIONS: According to our interpretation, based on the data included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, the COVID-19 pandemic and its related social restrictions detrimentally impacted the mental health of majority of individuals with ED. Limited and impaired access to healthcare interventions appeared to have further exacerbated mental health issues of individuals with ED. Given this background, it seems that individuals with ED demand more attention during the COVID-19 crisis, and it is necessary to ensure that their course of treatment remains uninterrupted.


The COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent lockdowns have significantly impacted people's mental health and mental status worldwide. Remarkably, people with pre-existing illnesses (e.g., eating disorders) were affected by the COVID-19-related restrictions. Thus, gathering information and data would significantly help researchers and physicians provide better future therapy and support for people with ED. Moreover, the use of online surveys to evaluate the mental status of people with ED has grown hugely in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, which could be used as a promising way of communicating with these people in the future. Considering the growing number of studies that reported the status of individuals with ED in the COVID-19 era, we aimed to conduct a comprehensive review to summarize the current literature. Our findings show that, of all individuals participating in the surveys, 59.65% of them experienced exacerbations in their ED symptoms and 9.37% experienced improved ED symptoms. Altogether, this emphasizes the challenges to maintaining well-being in individuals with ED during the pandemic.

5.
Rev Neurosci ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765567

ABSTRACT

The devastating characteristic of COVID-19 pandemic calls for immediate and effective solutions to tackle it. Vaccines seem to be the only promising and effective way to fight against the novel coronavirus - even against new mutated variants. Because of the rapid development and distribution of numerous COVID-19 vaccines in different platforms, meticulous evaluation of vaccines' safety is more critical than ever - especially given the fact that most of the candidates have not completed the clinical phase. Therefore, to optimize the vaccines' safety and efficacy, it is highly important to carefully report and scientifically discuss the serious adverse effects following vaccination. In this respect, we discuss different neurological and neuropsychological adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines including demyelinating diseases, Bell's palsy (BP), cerebrovascular complications, seizures, functional neurological disorders (FNDs), and some other rare adverse events, and hypothetical mechanisms which can lead to the reported side effects. Given the fact that the incidence of such events are rare and most of them are treatable, the current review aims to shed light on how much the relationship between COVID-19 vaccines and these complications can be reliable and provide an insight for future studies with much more meticulous methodologies to discuss the possible correlational or causal relationship between these complications and COVID-19 vaccines and elucidate whether or not the neurological side effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines can count as a considerable threat to public health.

6.
Biol Sex Differ ; 13(1): 12, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759778

ABSTRACT

Women and men are suggested to have differences in vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), schizophrenia, eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease. Genetic factors and sex hormones are apparently the main mediators of these differences. Recent evidence uncovers that reciprocal interactions between sex-related features (e.g., sex hormones and sex differences in the brain) and gut microbiota could play a role in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders via influencing the gut-brain axis. It is increasingly evident that sex-microbiota-brain interactions take part in the occurrence of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accordingly, integrating the existing evidence might help to enlighten the fundamental roles of these interactions in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, an increased understanding of the biological sex differences on the microbiota-brain may lead to advances in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and increase the potential for precision medicine. This review discusses the effects of sex differences on the brain and gut microbiota and the putative underlying mechanisms of action. Additionally, we discuss the consequences of interactions between sex differences and gut microbiota on the emergence of particular neuropsychiatric disorders.

7.
Acta Biomed ; 93(1): e2022179, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754152

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 genome has undergone several mutations since the beginning of the pandemic in December 2019. A number of these mutants were associated with higher transmissibility, higher mortality, or hospitalization rates, which were named the variants of concern. B.1.617.2 or the Delta variant has made a lot of concern as it has been responsible for the most recent COVID-19 outbreaks throughout the world. Higher transmissibility, a 60 percent increase in hospitalization rates compared to the wild type, higher viral loads, and reduced response to available vaccines are among the key factors why this variant has become a variant of concern. 148 countries are currently fighting with this variant, hoping to better understand the epidemiological, immunological, and clinical characteristics of this disease in order to find the best way to overcome these new outbreaks. Although reduced efficiency of vaccines on this variant and its higher pre-symptomatic transmissibility have made it complicated to control the disease, higher vaccination coverage and following sanitation rules can help control the outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1336-1349, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718399

ABSTRACT

The entire world has been suffering from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic since March 11, 2020. More than a year later, the COVID-19 vaccination brought hope to control this viral pandemic. Here, we review the unknowns of the COVID-19 vaccination, such as its longevity, asymptomatic spread, long-term side effects, and its efficacy on immunocompromised patients. In addition, we discuss challenges associated with the COVID-19 vaccination, such as the global access and distribution of vaccine doses, adherence to hygiene guidelines after vaccination, the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, and vaccine resistance. Despite all these challenges and the fact that the end of the COVID-19 pandemic is still unclear, vaccines have brought great hope for the world, with several reports indicating a significant decline in the risk of COVID19-related infection and hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Global Health , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/psychology
9.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 23, 2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised (IC) patients are at higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, morbidity, and mortality compared to the general population. They should be prioritized for primary prevention through vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in IC patients through a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. METHOD: PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for original articles reporting the immunogenicity of two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in adult patients with IC condition between June 1, 2020 and September 1, 2021. Meta-analysis was performed using either random or fixed effect according to the heterogeneity of the studies. Subgroup analysis was performed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 26 studies on 3207 IC patients and 1726 healthy individuals were included. The risk of seroconversion in IC patients was 48% lower than those in controls (RR = 0.52 [0.42, 0.65]). IC patients with autoimmune conditions were 54%, and patients with malignancy were 42% more likely to have positive seroconversion than transplant recipients (P < 0.01). Subgroup meta-analysis based on the type of malignancy, revealed significantly higher proportion of positive seroconversion in solid organ compared to hematologic malignancies (RR = 0.88 [0.85, 0.92] vs. 0.61 [0.44, 0.86], P = 0.03). Subgroup meta-analysis based on type of transplantation (kidney vs. others) showed no statistically significant between-group difference of seroconversion (P = 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: IC patients, especially transplant recipients, developed lower immunogenicity with two-dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Among patients with IC, those with autoimmune conditions and solid organ malignancies are mostly benefited from COVID-19 vaccination. Findings from this meta-analysis could aid healthcare policymakers in making decisions regarding the importance of the booster dose or more strict personal protections in the IC patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Organ Transplantation , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314087

ABSTRACT

Background: Interferons play a crucial role in antiviral immunity. Genetic defects in interferon receptors (IFNRs) can lead to the development of life-threatening forms of infectious diseases. Case presentation: A thirteen-year-old boy with a novel mutation in interferon alpha/beta receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1)(c.674-2A>G) was diagnosed with COVID-19. He had cold symptoms and a high-grade fever at the time of admission. He was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit after showing no response to favipiravir. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning revealed lung involvement of 70% with extensive areas of consolidation in both lungs. Antibiotics, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), remdesivir, methylprednisolone pulse, and other medications were started in the patient. However, remdesivir and methylprednisolone pulse were discontinued after the occurrence of hypertension and bradycardia in the patient. His general condition improved, and a few days later was discharged from the hospital. Conclusion: We reported a COVID-19 patient who had a novel mutation in IFNAR1 and was treated with IFN-γ. Our findings and approach to managing this COVID-19 patient suggest that IFN-γ therapy could be an appropriate choice to treat patients with defects in IFN-α/β signaling pathways.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310492

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the recovery rate and duration of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction of patients over a period of two months in the Iranian population. Methods: : In this study, 305 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled and followed over a duration of 2 months. Binary logistic regression was employed to assess the association between olfactory and gustatory dysfunction with clinical manifestations and past medical history of patients. Results: : Olfactory-gustatory dysfunction was reported in 103 ( 33.7%) patients. Of them, approximately 54.5% and 56.9% of patients did not recover from olfactory and gustatory dysfunction before 10 days, respectively. In addition, almost 21.8% and 20.1% of the patients did not recover from olfactory and gustatory dysfunction after two-month follow-up, respectively. Severe form of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction was reported in 93% and 74.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: We found that the majority of patients had olfactory and gustatory dysfunction for more than 10 days and about one fifth of patients did not recover after 60 days. Also, longer recovery time from olfactory and gustatory dysfunction was seen in patients who experienced the symptoms of weakness and dyspnea during the time of their disease.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305470

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: : The reports of neurological symptoms are increasing in cases with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This multi-center prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of neurological manifestations in hospitalized cases with COVID-19 and assess these symptoms as the predictors of severity and death. Methods: : Hospitalized males and females with COVID-19 who aged over 18 years were included in the study. They were examined by two neurologists at the time of admission. All survived cases were followed for eight weeks after discharge and 16 weeks if their symptoms had no improvements. Results: : We included 873 participants. Of eligible cases, 122 individuals (13.97%) died during hospitalization. The most common non-neurological manifestations were fever (81.1%), cough (76.1%), fatigue (36.1%), and shortness of breath (27.6%). Aging, male gender, co-morbidity, smoking, hemoptysis, chest tightness, and shortness of breath were associated with increased odds of severe cases and/or mortality. There were 561 (64.3%) cases with smell and taste dysfunctions (hyposmia: 58.6%;anosmia: 41.4%;dysguesia: 100%). They were more common among females (69.7%) and non-smokers (66.7%). Hyposmia/anosmia and dysgeusia were found to be associated with reduced odds of severe cases and mortality. Myalgia (24.8%), headaches (12.6%), and dizziness (11.9%) were other common neurological symptoms. Headaches had negative correlation with severity and death due to COVID-19 but myalgia and dizziness were not associated. The cerebrovascular events (n=10) and status epilepticus (n=1) were other neurological findings. The partial or full recovery of smell and taste dysfunctions was found in 95.2% after eight weeks and 97.3% after 16 weeks. The parosmia (30.9%) and phantosmia (9.0%) were also reported during 8 weeks of follow-up. Five cases with mild headaches and 5 cases with myalgia were reported after 16 weeks of discharge. The demyelinating myelitis (n=1) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (n=1) were also found during follow-up. Conclusion: Neurological symptoms were found to be prevalent among individuals with COVID-19 disease and should not be under-estimated during the current pandemic outbreak.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-304945

ABSTRACT

Background: . In the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, millions of people have been affected so far. Clinical manifestations and natural history of infections have a very wide range, which is important to know it in various underlying diseases. Although children are less affected than adults, its presentation especially in those with underlying diseases should not be neglected. Case presentation. Herein we report the first case of specific antibody deficiency, who was affected with COVID-19. The patient suffered from rhinorrhea and modestly increased in productive cough, but real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was positive for COVID-19. Conclusions: . Although presentation of COVID-19 in patients with immunodeficiency could be mild, it should not be missed, while early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can survive affected patients.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319046

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has profoundly affected the lives of millions of people. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific drug to prevent or treat COVID-19, while the infection is spreading at an alarming rate globally. Because the development of effective vaccines or novel drugs could take several months (if not years), repurposing existing drugs is considered a more efficient strategy that could save lives now. Statins constitute a class of lipid-lowering drugs with proven safety profiles and many known beneficial pleiotropic effects. Our previous investigations showed that statins have antiviral effects and are involved in the process of wound healing in the lung. This triggered us to evaluate if statin use reduces mortality in COVID-19 patients. Results: After initial recruitment of 459 patients with COVID-19 (Shiraz province, Iran) and careful consideration of the exclusion criteria, a total of 150 patients, of which 75 received statins, were included in our retrospective study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between statin use and rate of death. After propensity score matching, we found that statin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity [HR=0.85, 95% CI=(0.02, 3.93), P =0.762] and lower risk of death [(HR= 0.76;95% CI=(0.16, 3.72), P =0.735)];however, these associations did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, statin use reduced the chance of being subjected to mechanical ventilation [OR=0.96, 95% CI=(0.61–2.99), P =0.942] and patients on statins had a more normal computed tomography (CT) scan result [OR=0.41, 95% CI= (0.07–2.33), P =0.312]. Conclusions: Although we could not demonstrate a significant association between statin use and a reduction in mortality in patients with COVID19 , we do feel that our results are promising and of clinical relevance and warrant the need for prospective randomized controlled trials and extensive retrospective studies to validate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment on clinical symptoms and mortality rates associated with COVID-19.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317102

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. With an incredible rate of contagion, it has reached all over the world, with more than 2 million confirmed cases at the mid of April. However, the vertical transmission of COVID-19 is uncertain. This is a systematic review of published studies concerning pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 and their neonates. Methods: : We performed a systematic search in Pubmed, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, Scopus, and World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 database to find articles reporting clinical data of COVID-19-positive pregnant women and their neonates. Results: : 37 articles, involving 364 pregnant women with COVID-19 and 302 neonates, were included. The vast majority of pregnant patients were in their third trimester of pregnancy, and only 45 cases were in the first or second trimester (12.4%). Most mothers described mild to moderate manifestations of COVID-19. Of 364 pregnant women, 25 were asymptomatic at the time of admission. The most common symptoms were fever (62.4%) and cough (45.3%). Two maternal deaths occurred. Some pregnant patients (12.1%) had a negative SARS‐CoV‐2 test but displayed clinical manifestations and abnormalities in computed tomography (CT) scan related to COVID‐19. Twenty‐two (6.0%) pregnant patients developed severe pneumonia. Two maternal deaths occurred from severe pneumonia and multiple organ dysfunction. Studies included a total of 302 neonates from mothers with COVID‐19. Of the studies that provided data on the timing of birth, there were 65 (23.6%) preterm neonates. One baby was born dead from a mother who also died from COVID-19. Of the babies born alive from mothers with COVID‐19, five newborns faced critical conditions, and two of which later died. A total of 219 neonates underwent nasopharyngeal specimen collection for SARS‐CoV‐2, of which 11 tested positive (5%). Seventeen studies examined samples of the placenta, breast milk, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid, and all tested negative except one amniotic fluid sample. Conclusions: : A systematic review of published studies confirm that the course of COVID-19 in pregnant women resembles that of other populations. However, there is not sufficient evidence to establish an idea that COVID-19 would not complicate pregnancy.

16.
Pol J Radiol ; 87: e1-e23, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677745

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) scan is a commonly used tool for the diagnosis of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), similarly to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Because of the limitations of RT-PCR, there is growing interest in the usability of the CT scan. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to summarize the available data on the CT scan features of COVID-19. Material and methods: We conducted a systematic search in electronic databases to find eligible studies published between 1 December 2019 and 4 April 2020, which investigated the computed tomographic features of patients with COVID-19. All preprint and peer-reviewed articles were included. No language limitation was applied. For proportional data, pooled prevalence was calculated using a Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Eighty-six studies were eligible to be included in the meta-analysis. For 7956 patients, the most common CT findings were bilateral pattern of involvement (78%; 95% CI: 0.73-0.82; p < 0.001), involvement of more than 1 lobe (75%; 95% CI: 0.68-0.82; p < 0.001), ground-glass opacities (GGO) (73%; 95% CI: 0.67-0.78; p < 0.001), and peripheral distribution of signs (69%; 95% CI: 0.61-0.76; p < 0.001). Only 5% of patients had a normal CT scan (95% CI:0.03-0.07; p < 0.001). The proportion of paediatric patients (age < 18 years) with unremarkable CT findings was higher (40%; 95% CI: 0.27-0.55; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that patients with the severe or critical type of COVID-19 were more likely to have pleural effusion (RR 7.77; 95% CI: 3.97-15.18; p < 0.001) and consolidation (RR 3.13; 95% CI: 1.57-6.23; p < 0.001). CT results in patients with COVID-19 were comparable with those of people having pneumonia from other causes, except for the lower incidence of consolidation (RR 0.81; 95% CI: 0.71-0.91; p < 0.001) and higher risk of showing GGO (RR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.13-1.86; p < 0.001). The mortality rate was slightly higher in patients with bilateral involvement (RR 3.19; 95% CI: 1.07-9.49; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our study results show that COVID-19 shares some features with other viral types of pneumonia, despite some differences. They commonly present as GGO along with vascular thickening, air bronchogram and consolidations. Normal CT images, lymphadenopathies, and pleural effusions are not common. Consolidations and pleural effusions correlate with more severe disease. CT features are different between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. Also, they differ by age, disease severity, and outcomes within COVID-19 patients.

17.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 717: 109124, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653889

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS- CoV-2) with an estimated fatality rate of less than 1%. The SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF7b, ORF8, and ORF10 possess putative functions to manipulate host immune mechanisms. These involve interferons, which appear as a consensus function, immune signaling receptor NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome, and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and are critical in COVID-19 pathology. Outspread variations of each of the six accessory proteins were observed across six continents of all complete SARS-CoV-2 proteomes based on the data reported before November 2020. A decreasing order of percentage of unique variations in the accessory proteins was determined as ORF3a > ORF8 > ORF7a > ORF6 > ORF10 > ORF7b across all continents. The highest and lowest unique variations of ORF3a were observed in South America and Oceania, respectively. These findings suggest that the wide variations in accessory proteins seem to affect the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
Acta Biomed ; 92(6): e2021454, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648774

ABSTRACT

To the editor, Among the advancement of the COVID-19 pandemic, the pathogenic virus proceeds to change genomic epidemiology and steadily whole-genome sequencing evolution. One of the latest variations, SARS-CoV-2 delta, B.1.617.2 variant of concern (VOC) formerly, has become the most prevalent type of SARS-CoV-2 in many countries [1]. It identified following an upsurge in the western part of India since January 2021. More detailed analysis disclosed that the prevailing lineage in distribution is a novel identified lineage B.1.617 holding in common signature mutations D111D, G142D, L452R, E484Q, D614G, and P681R, in the spike protein, containing within the receptor-binding domain (RBD) [2, 3]. Following the initial high mortality rate of this variation in India as its hostess, as the growing number of fatal reports from several countries regarding its transfer to most parts of world in recent months, Delta variation was known as the deadliest COVID-19 [4, 5, 6]. According to official statistics, the mortality rate in individuals in areas where the Delta variant has become dominant is much higher than the same period and the epidemic with previous COVID-19 lineages. The enigma here is, does this mean more lethality of this variant?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1787-1788, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597228
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL