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J Neurointerv Surg ; 14(6): 539-545, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854390


BACKGROUND: Robotically performed neurointerventional surgery has the potential to reduce occupational hazards to staff, perform intervention with greater precision, and could be a viable solution for teleoperated neurointerventional procedures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the indication, robotic systems used, efficacy, safety, and the degree of manual assistance required for robotically performed neurointervention. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature up to, and including, articles published on April 12, 2021. Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane register databases were searched using medical subject heading terms to identify reports of robotically performed neurointervention, including diagnostic cerebral angiography and carotid artery intervention. RESULTS: A total of 8 articles treating 81 patients were included. Only one case report used a robotic system for intracranial intervention, the remaining indications being cerebral angiography and carotid artery intervention. Only one study performed a comparison of robotic and manual procedures. Across all studies, the technical success rate was 96% and the clinical success rate was 100%. All cases required a degree of manual assistance. No studies had clearly defined patient selection criteria, reference standards, or index tests, preventing meaningful statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Given the clinical success, it is plausible that robotically performed neurointerventional procedures will eventually benefit patients and reduce occupational hazards for staff; however, there is no high-level efficacy and safety evidence to support this assertion. Limitations of current robotic systems and the challenges that must be overcome to realize the potential for remote teleoperated neurointervention require further investigation.

Robotics , Cerebral Angiography , Humans , Vascular Surgical Procedures
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776153


A COVID-19 diagnosis is primarily determined by RT-PCR or rapid lateral-flow testing, although chest imaging has been shown to detect manifestations of the virus. This article reviews the role of imaging (CT and X-ray), in the diagnosis of COVID-19, focusing on the published studies that have applied artificial intelligence with the purpose of detecting COVID-19 or reaching a differential diagnosis between various respiratory infections. In this study, ArXiv, MedRxiv, PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched for studies using the criteria terms 'deep learning', 'artificial intelligence', 'medical imaging', 'COVID-19' and 'SARS-CoV-2'. The identified studies were assessed using a modified version of the Transparent Reporting of a Multivariable Prediction Model for Individual Prognosis or Diagnosis (TRIPOD). Twenty studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. Out of those selected, 11 papers evaluated the use of artificial intelligence (AI) for chest X-ray and 12 for CT. The size of datasets ranged from 239 to 19,250 images, with sensitivities, specificities and AUCs ranging from 0.789-1.00, 0.843-1.00 and 0.850-1.00. While AI demonstrates excellent diagnostic potential, broader application of this method is hindered by the lack of relevant comparators in studies, sufficiently sized datasets, and independent testing.