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J Korean Med Sci ; 37(11): e88, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753355


Nasopharyngeal swabs have been widely to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing is a generally safe and well-tolerated procedure, but numerous complications have been reported in the media. Therefore, the present study aimed to review and document adverse events and suggest procedural references to minimize preventable but often underestimated risks. A total of 27 articles were selected for the review of 842 related documents in PubMed, Embase, and KoreaMed. The complications related to nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing were reported to be rarely happened, ranging from 0.0012 to 0.026%. Frequently documented adverse events were retained swabs, epistaxis, and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, often associated with high-risk factors, including severe septal deviations, pre-existing skull base defects, and previous sinus or transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Appropriate techniques based on sufficient anatomical knowledge are mandatory for clinicians to perform nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing. The nasal floor can be predicted by the line between the nostril and external ear canal. For safe testing, the angle of swab insertion in the nasal passage should remain within 30° of the nasal floor. The swab was gently inserted along the nasal septum just above the nasal floor to the nasopharynx and remained on the nasopharynx for several seconds before removal. Forceful insertion should be attempted, and alternative examinations should be considered, especially in vulnerable patients. In conclusion, patients and clinicians should be aware of rare but possible complications and associated high-risk factors. The suggested procedural pearls enable more comfortable and safe nasopharyngeal COVID-19 testing for both clinicians and patients.

COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/adverse effects , Humans , Nasal Cavity/anatomy & histology , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/anatomy & histology , Specimen Handling/methods
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(26): e188, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298136


The rapid increase of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic from mid-February 2020 has led the anatomy department of the Korea University College of Medicine to cease the dissection laboratory. However, the hands-on anatomy laboratory experience is paramount to maximizing learning outcomes. In this paper, we share the experiences and lessons learned through the face-to-face cadaveric dissection experience during this disruptive situation. To minimize infection risks, the following strategies were applied: first, students' on-campus attendance was reduced; second, body temperatures and symptoms were checked before entering the laboratory, and personal protective equipment was provided to all participants; and third, a negative pressure air circulation system was used in the dissection room. We suggest that conducting face-to-face cadaveric anatomy dissection is feasible when the daily count of newly infected cases stabilizes, and there is ample provision of safety measures to facilitate hands-on education.

Anatomy/education , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dissection/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Cadaver , Education, Distance/methods , Humans , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(1): e13, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007020


BACKGROUND: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has profoundly affected education, with most universities changing face-to-face classes to online formats. To adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic situation, we adopted a blended learning approach to anatomy instruction that included online lectures, pre-recorded laboratory dissection videos, and 3D anatomy applications, with condensed offline cadaver dissection. METHODS: We aimed to examine the learning outcomes of a newly adopted anatomy educational approach by 1) comparing academic achievement between the blended learning group (the 2020 class, 108 students) and the traditional classroom learning group (the 2019 class, 104 students), and 2) an online questionnaire survey on student preference on the learning method and reasons of preference. RESULTS: The average anatomy examination scores of the 2020 class, who took online lectures and blended dissection laboratories, were significantly higher than those of the 2019 class, who participated in an offline lecture and dissection laboratories. The questionnaire survey revealed that students preferred online lectures over traditional large group lecture-based teaching because it allowed them to acquire increased self-study time, study according to their individual learning styles, and repeatedly review lecture videos. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a blended learning approach is an effective method for anatomy learning, and the advantage may result from increased self-directed study through online learning.

Anatomy/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Academic Success , Cadaver , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Humans , Learning , Outcome Assessment, Health Care