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1.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 2(6): 562-567, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518191

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematologic malignancies are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 infections, and upon a pooled data analysis of 24 publications, there is evidence that they have suboptimal antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccination and boosters. To provide them the needed additional protection from COVID-19, it is imperative to achieve a 100% full immunization rate in health care workers and adult caretakers, and to foster research to test higher doses and repeated rounds of COVID-19 vaccines and the use of passive immune prophylaxis and therapy.

3.
Cancer Discov ; 11(6): 1336-1344, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285108

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented destabilization of the world's health and economic systems. The rapid spread and life-threatening consequences of COVID-19 have imposed testing of repurposed drugs, by investigating interventions already used in other indications, including anticancer drugs. The contours of anticancer drug repurposing have been shaped by similarities between the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and malignancies, including abnormal inflammatory and immunologic responses. In this review, we discuss the salient positive and negative points of repurposing anticancer drugs to advance treatments for COVID-19. SIGNIFICANCE: Targeting anti-inflammatory pathways with JAK/STAT inhibitors or anticytokine therapies aiming to curb COVID-19-related cytokine storm, using antiangiogenic drugs to reduce vascular abnormalities or immune-checkpoint inhibitors to improve antiviral defenses, could be of value in COVID-19. However, conflicting data on drug efficacy point to the need for better patient selection and biomarker studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Repositioning , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
Cancer Discov ; 11(6): 1336-1344, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180988

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented destabilization of the world's health and economic systems. The rapid spread and life-threatening consequences of COVID-19 have imposed testing of repurposed drugs, by investigating interventions already used in other indications, including anticancer drugs. The contours of anticancer drug repurposing have been shaped by similarities between the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and malignancies, including abnormal inflammatory and immunologic responses. In this review, we discuss the salient positive and negative points of repurposing anticancer drugs to advance treatments for COVID-19. SIGNIFICANCE: Targeting anti-inflammatory pathways with JAK/STAT inhibitors or anticytokine therapies aiming to curb COVID-19-related cytokine storm, using antiangiogenic drugs to reduce vascular abnormalities or immune-checkpoint inhibitors to improve antiviral defenses, could be of value in COVID-19. However, conflicting data on drug efficacy point to the need for better patient selection and biomarker studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Repositioning , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Cancer Discov ; 11(2): 233-236, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140381

ABSTRACT

Published series on COVID-19 support the notion that patients with cancer are a particularly vulnerable population. There is a confluence of risk factors between cancer and COVID-19, and cancer care and treatments increase exposure to the virus and may dampen natural immune responses. The available evidence supports the conclusion that patients with cancer, in particular with hematologic malignancies, should be considered among the very high-risk groups for priority COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Public Health/methods , Risk , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(8): 2136-2138, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112357

ABSTRACT

The successful development of COVID-19 vaccines within an unprecedented short time needs to be followed by rapid vaccine uptake, in particular, in high-risk populations such as patients with cancer. It is important for the scientific research community and cancer physicians to convey the knowledge behind the COVID-19 vaccine development and contribute to build the required trust on their use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods
7.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(11): 893-896, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093891

ABSTRACT

Screening for cancer is a proven and recommended approach to prevent deaths from cancer; screening can locate precursor lesions and/or cancer at early stages when it is potentially curable. Racial and ethnic minorities and other medically underserved populations exhibit lower uptake of cancer screening than nonminorities in the United States. The COVID-19 pandemic, which disproportionately affected minority communities, has curtailed preventive services including cancer screening to preserve personal protective equipment and prevent spread of infection. While there is evidence for a rebound from the pandemic-driven reduction in cancer screening nationally, the return may not be even across all populations, with minority population screening that was already behind becoming further behind as a result of the community ravages from COVID-19. Fear of contracting COVID-19, limited access to safety-net clinics, and personal factors like, financial, employment, and transportation issues are concerns that are intensified in medically underserved communities. Prolonged delays in cancer screening will increase cancer in the overall population from pre-COVID-19 trajectories, and elevate the cancer disparity in minority populations. Knowing the overall benefit of cancer screening versus the risk of acquiring COVID-19, utilizing at-home screening tests and keeping the COVID-19-induced delay in screening to a minimum might slow the growth of disparity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Early Detection of Cancer , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 9(3): 261-264, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033549

ABSTRACT

The immunomodulatory effects of immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy for cancer may act at the crossroads between the need to increase antiviral immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to decrease the inflammatory responses in severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is evidence from preclinical models that blocking programmed death receptor 1 (PD1) protects against RNA virus infections, which suggests that patients with cancer receiving ICB may have lower rates of viral infection. However, given the heterogeneity of patient characteristics, this would be difficult to demonstrate using population-based registries or in clinical trials. Most studies of the impact of ICB therapy on the course of COVID-19 have centered on studying its potential detrimental impact on the course of the COVID-19 infection, in particular on the development of the most severe inflammatory complications. This is a logical concern as it is becoming clear that complications of COVID-19 such as severe respiratory distress syndrome are related to interferon signaling, which is the pathway that leads to expression of the PD1 ligand PD-L1. Therefore, PD1/PD-L1 ICB could potentially increase inflammatory processes, worsening the disease course for patients. However, review of the current evidence does not support the notion that ICB therapy worsens complications from COVID-19, and we conclude that it supports the continued use of ICB therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic provided that we now collect data on the effects of such therapy on COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/therapy , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Biomedical Research/economics , Biomedical Research/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Inflammation , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , Signal Transduction
9.
Cancer Discov ; 11(2): 233-236, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999341

ABSTRACT

Published series on COVID-19 support the notion that patients with cancer are a particularly vulnerable population. There is a confluence of risk factors between cancer and COVID-19, and cancer care and treatments increase exposure to the virus and may dampen natural immune responses. The available evidence supports the conclusion that patients with cancer, in particular with hematologic malignancies, should be considered among the very high-risk groups for priority COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Public Health/methods , Risk , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
10.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 26(18), 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-839487
11.
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