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1.
Am Heart J ; 262: 119-130, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are highly prevalent in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the proportion of patients with uncontrolled diseases is higher than in high-income countries. Innovative strategies are required to surpass barriers of low sources, distance and quality of health care. Our aim is to assess the uptake and effectiveness of the implementation of an integrated multidimensional strategy in the primary care setting, for the management of people with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in Brazil. METHODS: This scale up implementation study called Control of Hypertension and diAbetes in MINas Gerais (CHArMING) Project has mixed-methods, and comprehends 4 steps: (1) needs assessment, including a standardized structured questionnaire and focus groups with health care practitioners; (2) baseline period, 3 months before the implementation of the intervention; (3) cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 12-months follow-up period; and (4) a qualitative study after the end of follow-up. The cluster RCT will randomize 35 centers to intervention (n = 18) or usual care (n = 17). Patients ≥18 years old, with diagnosis of hypertension and/or DM, of 5 Brazilian cities in a resource-constrained area will be enrolled. The intervention consists of a multifaceted strategy, with a multidisciplinary approach, including telehealth tools (decision support systems, short message service, telediagnosis), continued education with an approach to issues related to the care of people with hypertension and diabetes in primary care, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment and behavioral change. The project has actions focused on professionals and patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study consists of a multidimensional strategy with multidisciplinary approach using digital health to improve the control of hypertension and/or DM in the primary health care setting. We expect to provide the basis for implementing an innovative management program for hypertension and DM in Brazil, aiming to reduce the present and future burden of these diseases in Brazil and other LMICs. CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER: This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. (NCT05660928).


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Humans , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Primary Health Care/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Heart ; 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 affects the cardiovascular system and ECG abnormalities may be associated with worse prognosis. We evaluated the prognostic value of ECG abnormalities in individuals with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicentre cohort study with adults hospitalised with COVID-19 from 40 hospitals across 23 countries. Patients were followed-up from admission until 30 days. ECG were obtained at each participating site and coded according to the Minnesota coding criteria. The primary outcome was defined as death from any cause. Secondary outcomes were admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of ECG abnormalities with the outcomes. RESULTS: Among 5313 participants, 2451 had at least one ECG and were included in this analysis. The mean age (SD) was 58.0 (16.1) years, 60.7% were male and 61.1% from lower-income to middle-income countries. The prevalence of major ECG abnormalities was 21.3% (n=521), 447 (18.2%) patients died, 196 (8.0%) had MACE and 1115 (45.5%) were admitted to an ICU. After adjustment, the presence of any major ECG abnormality was associated with a higher risk of death (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.78) and cardiovascular events (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.30 to 2.51). Sinus tachycardia (>120 bpm) with an increased risk of death (OR 3.86; 95% CI 1.97 to 7.48), MACE (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.10 to 5.85) and ICU admission OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.03 to 4.00). Atrial fibrillation, bundle branch block, ischaemic abnormalities and prolonged QT interval did not relate to the outcomes. CONCLUSION: Major ECG abnormalities and a heart rate >120 bpm were prognostic markers in adults hospitalised with COVID-19.

3.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(1): 24-26, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270895

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on excess mortality by race/skin colour in Brazil, between epidemiological weeks 12 and 50 of 2020. We compared the 2020 point estimate and the expected point estimate applying 2019 mortality rates to the 2020 population. There was an excess of 187 002 deaths (+20.2%) compared to the expected. Excess mortality was 26.3% (23.3-29.3%) among blacks/browns compared to 15.1% (14.1-16.1%) among whites (58.9% of excess among black/browns). Age-standardized rates increased from 377 to 419/100 000 among blacks/browns compared to 328 to 398/100 000 in whites, resulting in 9% relative risk. Excess mortality in Brazil depicts a considerable gap, with increased mortality in all age groups in the black/brown population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , White People
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e44209, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, telehealth was expanded without the opportunity to extensively evaluate the adopted technology's usability. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to synthesize evidence on health professionals' perceptions regarding the usability of telehealth systems in the primary care of individuals with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs; hypertension and diabetes) from the COVID-19 pandemic onward. METHODS: A systematic review was performed of clinical trials, prospective cohort studies, retrospective observational studies, and studies that used qualitative data collection and analysis methods published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese from March 2020 onward. The databases queried were MEDLINE, Embase, BIREME, IEEE Xplore, BVS, Google Scholar, and grey literature. Studies involving health professionals who used telehealth systems in primary care and managed patients with NCDs from the COVID-19 pandemic onward were considered eligible. Titles, abstracts, and full texts were reviewed. Data were extracted to provide a narrative qualitative evidence synthesis of the included articles. The risk of bias and methodological quality of the included studies were analyzed. The primary outcome was the usability of telehealth systems, while the secondary outcomes were satisfaction and the contexts in which the telehealth system was used. RESULTS: We included 11 of 417 retrieved studies, which had data from 248 health care professionals. These health care professionals were mostly doctors and nurses with prior experience in telehealth in high- and middle-income countries. Overall, 9 studies (82%) were qualitative studies and 2 (18%) were quasiexperimental or multisite trial studies. Moreover, 7 studies (64%) addressed diabetes, 1 (9%) addressed diabetes and hypertension, and 3 (27%) addressed chronic diseases. Most studies used a survey to assess usability. With a moderate confidence level, we concluded that health professionals considered the usability of telehealth systems to be good and felt comfortable and satisfied. Patients felt satisfied using telehealth. The most important predictor for using digital health technologies was ease of use. The main barriers were technological challenges, connectivity issues, low computer literacy, inability to perform complete physical examination, and lack of training. Although the usability of telehealth systems was considered good, there is a need for research that investigates factors that may influence the perceptions of telehealth usability, such as differences between private and public services; differences in the level of experience of professionals, including professional experience and experience with digital tools; and differences in gender, age groups, occupations, and settings. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has generated incredible demand for virtual care. Professionals' favorable perceptions of the usability of telehealth indicate that it can facilitate access to quality care. Although there are still challenges to telehealth, more than infrastructure challenges, the most reported challenges were related to empowering people for digital health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42021296887; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=296887. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.21801/ppcrj.2022.82.6.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Telemedicine/methods
5.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 10: e43135, 2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential of chatbots for screening and monitoring COVID-19 was envisioned since the outbreak of the disease. Chatbots can help disseminate up-to-date and trustworthy information, promote healthy social behavior, and support the provision of health care services safely and at scale. In this scenario and in view of its far-reaching postpandemic impact, it is important to evaluate user experience with this kind of application. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the quality of user experience with a COVID-19 chatbot designed by a large telehealth service in Brazil, focusing on the usability of real users and the exploration of strengths and shortcomings of the chatbot, as revealed in reports by participants in simulated scenarios. METHODS: We examined a chatbot developed by a multidisciplinary team and used it as a component within the workflow of a local public health care service. The chatbot had 2 core functionalities: assisting web-based screening of COVID-19 symptom severity and providing evidence-based information to the population. From October 2020 to January 2021, we conducted a mixed methods approach and performed a 2-fold evaluation of user experience with our chatbot by following 2 methods: a posttask usability Likert-scale survey presented to all users after concluding their interaction with the bot and an interview with volunteer participants who engaged in a simulated interaction with the bot guided by the interviewer. RESULTS: Usability assessment with 63 users revealed very good scores for chatbot usefulness (4.57), likelihood of being recommended (4.48), ease of use (4.44), and user satisfaction (4.38). Interviews with 15 volunteers provided insights into the strengths and shortcomings of our bot. Comments on the positive aspects and problems reported by users were analyzed in terms of recurrent themes. We identified 6 positive aspects and 15 issues organized in 2 categories: usability of the chatbot and health support offered by it, the former referring to usability of the chatbot and how users can interact with it and the latter referring to the chatbot's goal in supporting people during the pandemic through the screening process and education to users through informative content. We found 6 themes accounting for what people liked most about our chatbot and why they found it useful-3 themes pertaining to the usability domain and 3 themes regarding health support. Our findings also identified 15 types of problems producing a negative impact on users-10 of them related to the usability of the chatbot and 5 related to the health support it provides. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that users had an overall positive experience with the chatbot and found the health support relevant. Nonetheless, qualitative evaluation of the chatbot indicated challenges and directions to be pursued in improving not only our COVID-19 chatbot but also health chatbots in general.

7.
JMIR Med Inform ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although a great number of teleconsultation services have been developed during COVID-19 pandemic, studies assessing usability and healthcare provider satisfaction are still incipient. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development, implementation and expansion of a synchronous teleconsultation service targeting patients with symptoms of COVID-19 in Brazil, as well as to assess its usability and healthcare professionals' satisfaction. METHODS: This mixed-methods study was developed in five phases: (i) identification of components, technical and functional requirements and system architecture; (ii) system and user interface development and validation; (iii) pilot testing in the city of Divinópolis; (iv) expansion in the cities of Divinópolis, Teófilo Otoni and Belo Horizonte for Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais faculty and students; (v) usability and satisfaction assessment, using Likert scale and open-ended questions. RESULTS: During pilot development, problems to contact users were solved by introducing standardized text messages (SMS) sent to them to obtain their feedback and keep track of them. Until April, 2022, the expanded system achieved 31,966 patients in 146,158 teleconsultations. Teleconsultations were initiated through chatbot in 27,69% of cases. Teleconsultation efficiency per city was 93.7% in Teófilo Otoni, 92.4% in Divinopolis, and 98.8% in Belo Horizonte (university campus), avoiding in-person assistance for the great majority of patients. 60 healthcare professionals assessed the system's usability as satisfactory, despite a few system instability problems. CONCLUSIONS: The system provided updated information about COVID-19 and enabled remote care for thousands of patients, which evidenced the critical role of telemedicine in expanding emergency services capacity during the pandemic. The dynamic nature of the current pandemic required fast planning, implementation, development and updates in the system. Usability and satisfaction assessment was key to identifying areas for improvement. The experience reported here is expected to inform telemedicine strategies to be implemented in a post-pandemic scenario.

9.
Telemed J E Health ; 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134763

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Data addressing the economic aspects of telehealth initiatives are incipient. This study aimed to evaluate the labor costs for running a COVID-19 telehealth system and its potential incremental access to health care service. Methods: From July 2020 to July 2021, data from a Brazilian teleconsultation service were analyzed. Labor costs were estimated by time-driven activity-based costing. A Generalized Reduced Gradient solving method was coded to maximize the mean incremental access rate and two scenarios were considered to compare the teleconsultation with the in-person consultation: (1) only the length of time that patients spent with a clinician in an in-person consultation was accounted and (2) in addition to the medical consultation, nursing screening was accounted. The mean incremental access rate of the teleconsultation service was defined as a maximization objective in the model. Results: Mean labor costs per medical and nursing teleconsultations are Int$ 24 and Int$ 10, based on data analyses from 25,258 patients. Telemonitoring a patient with a daily call for 7 days costs, on average, Int$ 14. COVID-19 teleconsultation service represents, on average, an incremental access to medical consultation rate of 35% to 52% (min 23% max 63%) for the scenarios (1) and (2), respectively, and considering the current consumed budget for this service. Discussion: A COVID-19 telehealth service contributes to increasing access to the health care system without increasing costs. These services can be included in the bundle of care strategies offered in a national public health care system that looks for more sustainable strategies to provide care.

10.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053122, 2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794501

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly in low-and middle-income countries, where the greatest burden lies. Yet, there is little research concerning the specific issues involved in scaling up NCD interventions targeting low-resource settings. We propose to examine this gap in up to 27 collaborative projects, which were funded by the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) 2019 Scale Up Call, reflecting a total funding investment of approximately US$50 million. These projects represent diverse countries, contexts and adopt varied approaches and study designs to scale-up complex, evidence-based interventions to improve hypertension and diabetes outcomes. A systematic inquiry of these projects will provide necessary scientific insights into the enablers and challenges in the scale up of complex NCD interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will apply systems thinking (a holistic approach to analyse the inter-relationship between constituent parts of scaleup interventions and the context in which the interventions are implemented) and adopt a longitudinal mixed-methods study design to explore the planning and early implementation phases of scale up projects. Data will be gathered at three time periods, namely, at planning (TP), initiation of implementation (T0) and 1-year postinitiation (T1). We will extract project-related data from secondary documents at TP and conduct multistakeholder qualitative interviews to gather data at T0 and T1. We will undertake descriptive statistical analysis of TP data and analyse T0 and T1 data using inductive thematic coding. The data extraction tool and interview guides were developed based on a literature review of scale-up frameworks. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current protocol was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC number 23482). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and more broadly through the GACD network.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Systems Analysis
11.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(3): e35216, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The restrictions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic reduced health service access by patients with chronic diseases. The discontinuity of care is a cause of great concern, mainly in vulnerable regions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) regarding the frequency of consultations and whether their disease was kept under control. The study also aimed to develop and implement a digital solution to improve monitoring at home. METHODS: This is a multimethodological study. A quasiexperimental evaluation assessed the impact of the pandemic on the frequency of consultations and control of patients with hypertension and DM in 34 primary health care centers in 10 municipalities. Then, an implementation study developed an app with a decision support system (DSS) for community health workers (CHWs) to identify and address at-risk patients with uncontrolled hypertension or DM. An expert panel assessment evaluated feasibility, usability, and utility of the software. RESULTS: Of 5070 patients, 4810 (94.87%) had hypertension, 1371 (27.04%) had DM, and 1111 (21.91%) had both diseases. There was a significant reduction in the weekly number of consultations (107, IQR 60.0-153.0 before vs 20.0, IQR 7.0-29.0 after social restriction; P<.001). Only 15.23% (772/5070) of all patients returned for a consultation during the pandemic. Individuals with hypertension had lower systolic (120.0, IQR 120.0-140.0 mm Hg) and diastolic (80.0, IQR 80.0-80.0 mm Hg) blood pressure than those who did not return (130.0, IQR 120.0-140.0 mm Hg and 80.0, IQR 80.0-90.0 mm Hg, respectively; P<.001). Also, those who returned had a higher proportion of controlled hypertension (64.3% vs 52.8%). For DM, there were no differences in glycohemoglobin levels. Concerning the DSS, the experts agreed that the CHWs can easily incorporate it into their routines and the app can identify patients at risk and improve treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant drop in the number of consultations for patients with hypertension and DM in primary care. A DSS for CHW has proved to be feasible, useful, and easily incorporated into their routines.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20289, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467125

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease (CD) continues to be a major public health burden in Latina America. Information on the interplay between COVID-19 and CD is lacking. Our aim was to assess clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients with CD and COVID-19, and to compare it to non-CD patients. Consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included from March to September 2020. Genetic matching for sex, age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hospital was performed in a 4:1 ratio. Of the 7018 patients who had confirmed COVID-19, 31 patients with CD and 124 matched controls were included (median age 72 (64-80) years-old, 44.5% were male). At baseline, heart failure (25.8% vs. 9.7%) and atrial fibrillation (29.0% vs. 5.6%) were more frequent in CD patients than in the controls (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein levels were lower in CD patients compared with the controls (55.5 [35.7, 85.0] vs. 94.3 [50.7, 167.5] mg/dL). In-hospital management, outcomes and complications were similar between the groups. In this large Brazilian COVID-19 Registry, CD patients had a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and chronic heart failure compared with non-CD controls, with no differences in-hospital outcomes. The lower C-reactive protein levels in CD patients require further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chagas Disease/pathology , Hospitalization/trends , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation , Brazil , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/virology , Coinfection , Diabetes Mellitus , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210025, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic according to social vulnerability by areas of Belo Horizonte (BH), aiming at strategies for vaccination. METHODS: Ecological study with mortality analysis according to census tracts classified by the Health Vulnerability Index, a composite indicator that includes socioeconomic and sanitation variables. Deaths by natural causes and by COVID-19 were obtained from the "Mortality Information System", between the 10th and 43rd epidemiological weeks (EW) of 2020. Excess mortality was calculated in a time series model, considering observed and expected deaths per EW, between 2015 and 2019, per census tracts. Mortality rates (MR) were calculated and age-standardized using population estimates from the 2010 census, by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). RESULTS: Excess mortality in BH was 16.1% (n = 1,524): 11, 18.8 and 17.3% in low, intermediate and high vulnerability areas, respectively. The differences between observed and expected age-standardized MR by natural causes were equal to 59/100,000 inhabitants in BH, increasing from 31 to 77 and 95/100,000 inhabitants in the areas of low, intermediate and high vulnerability, respectively. There was an aging gradient in MR by COVID-19, ranging from 4 to 611/100,000 inhabitants among individuals aged 20-39 years and 75+ years. The COVID-19 MR per 100,000 older adults (60+ years) was 292 in BH, increasing from 179 to 354 and 476, in low, intermediate and high vulnerability areas, respectively. CONCLUSION: Inequalities in mortality, particularly among older adults, combined with the limited supply of doses, demonstrate the importance of prioritizing socially vulnerable areas during vaccination against COVID-19.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a mortalidade por áreas de Belo Horizonte (BH) durante a pandemia de COVID-19 conforme a vulnerabilidade social, visando a uma estratégia de vacinação. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico com análise de mortalidade, segundo setores censitários classificados pelo índice de vulnerabilidade da saúde, composto de indicadores de saneamento e socioeconômicos. Óbitos por causas naturais e COVID-19 foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, entre a 10ª e a 43ª semanas epidemiológicas (SE) de 2020. Calculou-se o excesso de mortalidade por modelo de série temporal, considerando-se as mortes observadas por SE entre 2015 e 2019, por setor censitário. Taxas de mortalidade (TM) foram calculadas e padronizadas por idade com base em estimativas populacionais do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). RESULTADOS: Houve 16,1% (n = 1.524) de excesso de mortalidade em BH: 11, 18,8 e 17,3% nas áreas de baixa, média e elevada vulnerabilidade, respectivamente. As diferenças entre TM observadas e esperadas por causas naturais, padronizadas por idade, foi igual a 59/100 mil habitantes em BH, aumentando de 31 para 77 e 95/100 mil, nas áreas de baixa, média e elevada vulnerabilidade, respectivamente. Houve gradiente de aumento com a idade nas TM por COVID-19, variando de 4 a 611/100 mil habitantes entre as idades de 20-39 anos e 75+ anos. A TM por COVID-19 por 100 mil idosos (60+ anos) foi igual a 292, aumentando de 179 para 354 e 476 nos setores de baixa, média e elevada vulnerabilidade, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Desigualdades na mortalidade, mesmo entre idosos, aliadas à baixa oferta de doses, demonstram a importância de priorizar áreas socialmente vulneráveis durante a vacinação contra COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Heart ; 106(24): 1898-1905, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873558

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, excess mortality has been reported, while hospitalisations for acute cardiovascular events reduced. Brazil is the second country with more deaths due to COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate excess cardiovascular mortality during COVID-19 pandemic in 6 Brazilian capital cities. METHODS: Using the Civil Registry public database, we evaluated total and cardiovascular excess deaths, further stratified in specified cardiovascular deaths (acute coronary syndromes and stroke) and unspecified cardiovascular deaths in the 6 Brazilian cities with greater number of COVID-19 deaths (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Fortaleza, Recife, Belém, Manaus). We compared observed with expected deaths from epidemiological weeks 12-22 of 2020. We also compared the number of hospital and home deaths during the period. RESULTS: There were 65 449 deaths and 17 877 COVID-19 deaths in the studied period and cities for 2020. Cardiovascular mortality increased in most cities, with greater magnitude in the Northern capitals. However, while there was a reduction in specified cardiovascular deaths in the most cities, the Northern capitals showed an increase of these events. For unspecified cardiovascular deaths, there was a marked increase in all cities, which strongly correlated to the rise in home deaths (r=0.86, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Excess cardiovascular mortality was greater in the less developed cities, possibly associated with healthcare collapse. Specified cardiovascular deaths decreased in the most developed cities, in parallel with an increase in unspecified cardiovascular and home deaths, presumably as a result of misdiagnosis. Conversely, specified cardiovascular deaths increased in cities with a healthcare collapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Urban Health/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cause of Death , Databases, Factual , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
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