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Oral Dis ; 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213788


OBJECTIVE: Oral lesions received increased attention as likely new signs or secondary manifestations of COVID-19. Therefore, we clinically examined oral cavity of patients with COVID-19 and investigated oral lesions and patient comorbidities as possible risk factors of COVID-19 disease outcome. METHODS: From January to March 2022, a prospective study was conducted by recruiting all COVID-19 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and Respiratory Intensive Care Unit of Maxi-Emergencies Hospital in Bari, Italy. RESULTS: From the enrolled 103 COVID-19 patients, 46.6% were females and 53.4% were males. Findings show that risk of presenting with severe COVID-19 disease was higher in patients who developed oral lesions related to COVID-19 than those with no oral lesions (RR = 7.998, p = .002). Next, patients with concomitant autoimmune diseases were at higher risk of a negative COVID-19 disease outcome than those without comorbidities (OR = 8.838, p = .026). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-related lesions of oral mucosa should not be ignored as they can be early and easily detectable signs of severe COVID-19 disease condition, thus, serving as a prevention measure for any potential unfortunate event. Findings of this study, without implying causation, offer a direction for future investigations that aim to confirm the presence of specific oral lesions in COVID-19 patients as signs of severe disease progression.

Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969296


BACKGROUND: The recent COVID-19 pandemic produced a significant increase in cases and an emergency state was induced worldwide. The current knowledge about the COVID-19 disease concerning diagnoses, patient tracking, the treatment protocol, and vaccines provides a consistent contribution for the primary prevention of the viral infection and decreasing the severity of the SARS-CoV-2 disease. The aim of the present investigation was to produce a general overview about the current findings for the COVID-19 disease, SARS-CoV-2 interaction mechanisms with the host, therapies and vaccines' immunization findings. METHODS: A literature overview was produced in order to evaluate the state-of-art in SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses, prognoses, therapies, and prevention. RESULTS: Concerning to the interaction mechanisms with the host, the virus binds to target with its Spike proteins on its surface and uses it as an anchor. The Spike protein targets the ACE2 cell receptor and enters into the cells by using a special enzyme (TMPRSS2). Once the virion is quietly accommodated, it releases its RNA. Proteins and RNA are used in the Golgi apparatus to produce more viruses that are released. Concerning the therapies, different protocols have been developed in observance of the disease severity and comorbidity with a consistent reduction in the mortality rate. Currently, different vaccines are currently in phase IV but a remarkable difference in efficiency has been detected concerning the more recent SARS-CoV-2 variants. CONCLUSIONS: Among the many questions in this pandemic state, the one that recurs most is knowing why some people become more seriously ill than others who instead contract the infection as if it was a trivial flu. More studies are necessary to investigate the efficiency of the treatment protocols and vaccines for the more recent detected SARS-CoV-2 variant.

COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
Infect Dis Rep ; 14(3): 492-500, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969184


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease is a pandemic that has disrupted many human lives, threatening people's physical and mental health. Each pandemic wave struck in different ways, infectiveness-wise and mortality-wise. This investigation focuses on critically ill patients affected by the last two variants, Delta and Omicron, and aims to analyse if any difference exists between the two groups. METHODS: intensive care unit (ICU) COVID-19 consecutive admissions between 1 October 2021 and 31 March 2022 were recorded daily, and data concerning the patients' demographics, variants, main comorbidities, ICU parameters on admission, and the outcome were analysed by a univariate procedure and by a multivariate analysis. RESULTS: 65 patients were enrolled, 31 (47.69%) belonging to the Omicron versus 34 (52.31%) to the Delta group. The mortality rate was 52.94% for the Omicron group versus 41.9% for the Delta group. A univariate analysis showed that the Omicron variant was associated with total comorbidities number, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), pre-existing pulmonary disease, vaccination status, and acute kidney injury (AKI). In stepwise multivariate analysis, the total number of comorbidities was positively associated with the Omicron group, while pulmonary embolism was negatively correlated with the Omicron group. CONCLUSION: Omicron appears to have lost some of the hallmarks of the Delta variant, such as endothelialitis and more limited cellular tropism when it comes to the patients in the ICU. Further studies are encouraged to explore different therapeutic approaches to treat critical patients with COVID-19.

Case Rep Dent ; 2022: 8650099, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938101


Odontogenic infections represent a frequent condition that in some cases, if not treated promptly, can spread quickly to the rest of the body and turn into life-threatening infections. In this work, the case is reported of a 59-year-old woman, diabetic and overweight, who presented to the Odontostomatology and Otolaryngology Section of the Policlinic of Bari with mandibular tooth infection that had developed into a deep neck space infection leading to the involvement of cavernous sinuses and near mediastinum. The diagnosis, the surgical drainage of the phlegmon and removal of infection foci, appropriate control of the airways, and a correct antibiotic therapy made it possible to avoid a potentially fatal condition. Prompt management and early diagnosis of deep space neck infections, such as phlegmon and/or necrotizing fasciitis, with the auxilium of CT scans and tools such as LRINEC (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis), NLR (Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio), and LRINECxNLR scores (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio), are advised to evade delays and complications that could potentially worsen the patient's outcome.