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1.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528358

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a highly dramatic concern for mankind. In Italy, the pandemic exerted its major impact throughout the period of February to June 2020. To date, the awkward amount of more than 131,000 deaths have been reported. Post-mortem autopsy was performed on a very modest number of patients who died from COVID-19 infection, leading to a first confirmation of an immune-thrombosis of the lungs as the major COVID-19 pathogenesis, likewise for SARS. Since then (June-August 2020), no targeted early therapy considering this pathogenetic issue was approached. The patients treated with early anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, anticoagulant, and antibiotic therapy confirmed that COVID-19 was an endothelial inflammation with immuno-thrombosis. Patients not treated or scarcely treated with the most proper and appropriate therapy and in the earliest, increased the hospitalization rate in the intensive care units and also mortality, due to immune-thrombosis from the pulmonary capillary district and alveoli. The disease causes widespread endothelial inflammation, which can induce damage to various organs and systems. Therapy must be targeted in this consideration and in this review, we demonstrate how early anti-inflammatory therapy treats endothelia inflammation and immune-thrombosis caused by COVID-19, by using drugs we are going to recommend in this paper.

3.
Internal and emergency medicine ; : 1-4, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1479271
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477963

ABSTRACT

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic systemic disease that manifests via various symptoms such as chronic fatigue, post-exertional malaise, and cognitive impairment described as "brain fog". These symptoms often prevent patients from keeping up their pre-disease onset lifestyle, as extended periods of physical or mental activity become almost impossible. However, the disease presents heterogeneously with varying severity across patients. Therefore, consensus criteria have been designed to provide a diagnosis based on symptoms. To date, no biomarker-based tests or diagnoses are available, since the molecular changes observed also largely differ from patient to patient. In this review, we discuss the infectious, genetic, and hormonal components that may be involved in CFS pathogenesis, we scrutinize the role of gut microbiota in disease progression, we highlight the potential of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) for the development of diagnostic tools and briefly mention the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection causing CFS.

5.
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine: Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health ; 22(4):860-870, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1328240

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Healthcare patterns change during disease outbreaks and pandemics. Identification of modified patterns is important for future preparedness and response. Emergency department (ED) crowding can occur because of the volume of patients waiting to be seen, which results in delays in patient assessment or treatment and impediments to leaving the ED once treatment is complete. Therefore, ED crowding has become a growing problem worldwide and represents a serious barrier to healthcare operations. Methods: This observational study was based on a retrospective review of the epidemiologic and clinical records of patients who presented to the Foundation IRCCS Policlinic San Matteo in Pavia, Italy, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak (February 21–May 1, 2020, pandemic group). The methods involved an estimation of the changes in epidemiologic and clinical data from the annual baseline data after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: We identified reduced ED visits (180 per day in the control period vs 96 per day in the pandemic period;P < 0.001) during the COVID-19 pandemic, irrespective of age and gender, especially for low-acuity conditions. However, patients who did present to the ED were more likely to be hemodynamically unstable, exhibit abnormal vital signs, and more frequently required high-intensity care and hospitalization. During the pandemic, ED crowding dramatically increased primarily because of an increased number of visits by patients with high-acuity conditions, changes in patient management that prolonged length of stay, and increased rates of boarding, which led to the inability of patients to gain access to appropriate hospital beds within a reasonable amount of time. During the pandemic, all crowding output indices increased, especially the rates of boarding (36% vs 57%;P < 0.001), “access block” (24% vs 47%;P < 0.001), mean boarding time (640 vs 1,150 minutes [min];P 0.001), mean “access block” time (718 vs 1,223 min;P < 0.001), and “access block” total time (650,379 vs 1,359,172 min;P < 0.001). Conclusion: Crowding in the ED during the COVID-19 pandemic was due to the inability to access hospital beds. Therefore, solutions to this lack of access are required to prevent a recurrence of crowding due to a new viral wave or epidemic. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Western Journal of Emergency Medicine: Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health is the property of Western Journal of Emergency Medicine: Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

7.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261815

ABSTRACT

The geriatric population constitutes a large slice of the population of Western countries and a class of fragile patients, with greater deaths due to COVID-19. The patterns of healthcare utilization change during pandemic disease outbreaks. Identifying the patterns of changes of this particular fragile subpopulation is important for future preparedness and response. Overcrowding in the emergency department (ED) can occur because of the volume of patients waiting to be seen, delays in patient assessment or treatment in the ED, or impediments to leaving the ED once the treatment has been completed. Overcrowding has become a serious and growing issue globally, which represents a serious impediment to healthcare utilization. To estimate the rate of ED visits attributable to the outbreak and guide the planning of strategies for managing ED access or after the outbreak of transmittable respiratory diseases. This observational study was based on a retrospective review of the epidemiological and clinical records of patients aged > 75 years who visited the Foundation IRCCS Policlinic San Matteo during the first wave of COVID-19 outbreak (February 21 to May 1, 2020; pandemic group). The analysis methods included estimation of the changes in the epidemiological and clinical data from the annual baseline data after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Outcome measures and analysis: Primary objective is the evaluation of ED admission rate change and ED overcrowding. Secondary objectives are the evaluation of modes of ED access by reason and triage code, access types, clinical outcomes (such as admission and mortality rates). During the pandemic, ED crowding increased dramatically, although the overall number of patients decreased, in the face of a percentage increase in those with high-acuity conditions, because of changes in patient management that have prolonged length of stay (LOS) and increased rates of access block. Overcrowding during the COVID-19 pandemic can be attributed to the Access Block. Access Block solutions are hence required to prevent a recurrence of crowding to any new viral wave or new epidemic in the future.

8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107777, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225264

ABSTRACT

An increasing amount of reports in the literature is showing that medical ozone (O3) is used, with encouraging results, in treating COVID-19 patients, optimizing pain and symptoms relief, respiratory parameters, inflammatory and coagulation markers and the overall health status, so reducing significantly how much time patients underwent hospitalization and intensive care. To date, aside from mechanisms taking into account the ability of O3 to activate a rapid oxidative stress response, by up-regulating antioxidant and scavenging enzymes, no sound hypothesis was addressed to attempt a synopsis of how O3 should act on COVID-19. The knowledge on how O3 works on inflammation and thrombosis mechanisms is of the utmost importance to make physicians endowed with new guns against SARS-CoV2 pandemic. This review tries to address this issue, so to expand the debate in the scientific community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxidants, Photochemical/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106879, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the potential efficacy of a novel approach to treat COVID-19 patients, using an oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) mixture, via a process called Oxygen-Ozone- Immunoceutical Therapy. The methodology met the criteria of a novel, promising approach to treat successfully elderly COVID-19 patients, particularly when hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) Experimental design: We investigated the therapeutic effect of 4 cycles of O2-O3 in 50 hospitalized COVID-19 subjects suffering from acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), aged more than 60 years, all males and undergoing non invasive mechanical ventilation in ICUs. RESULTS: Following O2-O3 treatment a significant improvement in inflammation and oxygenation indexes occurred rapidly and within the first 9 days after the treatment, despite the expected 14-20 days. A significant reduction of inflammatory and thromboembolic markers (CRP, IL-6, D-dimer) was observed. Furthermore, amelioration in the major respiratory indexes, such as respiratory and gas exchange markers (SatO2%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio), was reported. CONCLUSION: Our results show that O2-O3 treatment would be a promising therapy for COVID-19 patients. It leads patients to a fast recovery from ARDS via the improvement of major respiratory indexes and blood gas parameters, following a relatively short time of dispensed forced ventilation (about one to two weeks). This study may encourage the scientific community to further investigate and evaluate the proposed method for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Ozone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/instrumentation , Infusions, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Ozone/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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