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1.
Intern Med J ; 52(8): 1423-1428, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990262

ABSTRACT

We report two cases of middle-aged men who presented with clinical features that satisfied the diagnostic criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). Both patients were treated for toxic shock syndrome and MIS-A and have recovered. The purpose of this article is to communicate our experience and challenges of assessing and treating this condition and to raise awareness of the condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Shock, Septic , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
2.
Antimicrobial Stewardship and Healthcare Epidemiology ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2159991

ABSTRACT

[...]mentors protect the time of the younger person and free the younger person to thrive. Statistics Success in epidemiology requires continued learning, including increased skills in assessing the scientific literature. The best approach is to surround yourself with colleagues and friends who remain animated about the field, who love ideas, who can challenge freely their own assumptions and current dogma, then ask why they should accept what is considered common sense.

3.
Blood Adv ; 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139114

ABSTRACT

Troubling disparities in COVID-19-associated mortality emerged early, with nearly 70% of deaths confined to Black/African American (AA) patients in some areas. Nevertheless, targeted studies within this vulnerable population are scant. Here, we applied multi-omics single-cell analyses of immune profiles from matching airways and blood samples of Black/AA patients during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Transcriptional reprogramming of infiltrating IFITM2+/S100A12+ mature neutrophils, likely recruited via the IL-8/CXCR2 axis, led to a persistent and self-sustaining pulmonary neutrophilia with advanced features of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) despite low viral load in the airways. In addition, exacerbated neutrophil production of IL-8, IL-1ß, IL-6, and CCL3/4, along with elevated levels of neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase, were the hallmarks of a transcriptionally active and pathogenic airway neutrophilia. Although our analysis was limited to Black/AA patients and was not designed as a comparative study across different ethnicities, we present an unprecedented in-depth analysis of the immunopathology that leads to ARDS in a well-defined patient population disproportionally affected by severe COVID-19.

4.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis Conference ; 6(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128134

ABSTRACT

Background: Blood product in therapeutic transfusion are now commonly acknowledged to present biologically active constituents during processes of preparation. In the midst of worldwide COVI-19 pandemic, preliminary evidence, suggest that convalescent plasma may lessen the severity of COVID-19, particularly concerning patients with profound B-cell lymphopenia and prolonged COVID-19 symptoms. Aim(s): This study examined the influence of photochemical pathogen reduction treatment (PRT) using amotosalen-HCl and UVA light vs untreated control convalescent plasma (n = 72 -paired samples) -cFFP. Method(s): This study investigated the soluble inflammatory factors: SCD40L, IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-alpha and ex-vivo inflammatory bioactivity on endothelial cells. Result(s): We observed that IL-8 concentrations were significantly decreased in cFFP w PRT, whereas IL-18 concentration was increased. We observed after activation with cFFP w PRT and w/o PRT no significant modulation of IL-6 released by endothelial cells. CD54 and CD31 expression in the presence of cFFP (w or w/o PRT) is close to negative controls, even if CD54 and CD31 were significant decreased in presence of cFFP w vs w/o PRT. Conclusion(s): It appears valuable to carry on investigations, of IL-18 and IL-8, on both the physiopathology of PRT convalescent plasma treated and post marketing clinical trials. Further research, including a careful clinical evaluation of CCP-treated patients, will be required to further define the clinical relevance of these findings.

5.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis Conference ; 6(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128133

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) contains neutralizing anti-SARS- CoV- 2 antibodies that may be useful as COVID-19 passive immunotherapy in patients at risk of developing severe disease. Aim(s): Such plasma from convalescent patients may also have additional immune-modulatory properties when transfused to COVID-19 patients. Method(s): CCP (n = 766) were compared to control non-convalescent plasma (n = 166) for soluble inflammatory markers, ex-vivo inflammatory bioactivity on endothelial cells, neutralizing auto-Ab to type I IFNs, and reported adverse events in the recipients. Result(s): CCP exhibited significantly higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha (0.531+/-0.04 vs 0.271+/-0.04;p = 0.0061 and 0.900+/-0.07 vs 0.283+/-0.07 pg/ml;p < 0.0001), respectively) and lower IL-10 (0.731+/-0.07 vs 1.22+/-0.19 pg/ ml, p = 0.0034) levels than control plasma. Other inflammatory markers as well as ex-vivo bioactivity did not differ significantly between CCP and control plasma. Neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs were detected in 14/766 (1.8 %) CCP. They were not associated with reported adverse events when transfused (n = 14). Inflammatory markers and bioactivity in CCP with or without auto-Ab, or in CCP associated or not with adverse events in transfused patients, did not differ significantly. Overall, CCP exhibited moderately increased inflammatory markers compared to control plasma with no discernable differences in ex-vivo bioactivity. Auto-Ab to type I IFNs, detected in a small fraction of CCP, were not associated with reported adverse events or differences in inflammatory markers. Conclusion(s): Further defining the clinical relevance of these findings will require further studies including careful clinical evaluation of patients treated with CCP.

6.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125716

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 brought disruptions to children’s education and mental health, and accelerated school de-registration rates. We investigated Elective Home Education (EHE) in families of children with a neurodevelopmental condition. A total of 158 parents of 5–15 year-old children with neurodevelopmental conditions (80% autistic) provided information on reasons for de-registration, their experience of EHE, and children’s mental health. Few differences were found between children participating in EHE before and after the pandemic started. Low satisfaction with school for not meeting children’s additional needs was the main reason for de-registering in both groups. COVID-19 had a more limited role in parents’ decision to de-register. The main advantage of EHE reported in both groups was the provision of personalised education and one-to-one support. Levels of anxiety, internalising and externalising problems were similar between children participating in EHE before and after the pandemic started, and also similar between all children in EHE and school-registered children (N = 1,079).

7.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 29(4):331, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2119847
8.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(2): 228-229, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096442

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has migrated to regions that were initially spared, and it is likely that different populations are currently at risk for illness. Herein, we present our observations of the change in characteristics and resource use of COVID-19 patients over time in a national system of community hospitals to help inform those managing surge planning, operational management, and future policy decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virginia/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276561, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The sense of belonging is a fundamental human need. Enacting it through face-to-face social activities was no longer possible during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we investigate how the sense of belonging, and how it is enacted, changed longitudinally amongst older adults in the UK. In addition, we examine the interplay of the sense of belonging and resilience over time. METHODS: We employed a longitudinal qualitative research design to explore the experiences of older adults during one year of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020-April 2021). The analysis was undertaken with constructivist grounded theory. FINDINGS: Before the pandemic older adults were free to engage in social relationships with family and friends, often enacted within social activity groups where they felt valued and gained positive experiences. During the pandemic face to face enactment of belongingness was reduced; adjustments needed to be made to maintain the sense of belonging. The experience of older adults was heterogeneous. We examine three themes. First, how belongingness was enacted prior to the pandemic. Examples include: family holidays, visiting each other, sports activities, eating with friends and family, and visiting cultural events. Second, how participants adapted and maintained their social involvement. Examples include: distanced face-to-face activities; and learning new technology. Third, for some, a belongingness gap emerged and persisted. There was an irretrievable loss of family members or friends, the closure of social groups, or withdrawal from groups as priorities changed. As a consequence, of challenged belongingness, participants expressed increased loneliness, anxiety, social isolation, frustration and, feelings of depression. For many, the disrupted sense of belonging no longer fostered resilience, and some previously resilient participants were no longer resilient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Loneliness , Social Isolation , Qualitative Research
12.
ERJ Open Res ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2064728

ABSTRACT

As of mid-September 2022, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has infected more than 600 million people and claimed the lives of more than 6.5 million individuals globally [https://covid19.who.int/]. The early diagnosis of COVID-19 would allow early management and isolation measures, highlighting the need for a rapid, point-of-care diagnosis in every resource setting.

13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The large number of patients worldwide infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus has overwhelmed health-care systems globally. The Anti-Coronavirus Therapies (ACT) outpatient trial aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory therapy with colchicine and antithrombotic therapy with aspirin for prevention of disease progression in community patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The ACT outpatient, open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised, controlled trial, was done at 48 clinical sites in 11 countries. Patients in the community aged 30 years and older with symptomatic, laboratory confirmed COVID-19 who were within 7 days of diagnosis and at high risk of disease progression were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive colchicine 0·6 mg twice daily for 3 days and then 0·6 mg once daily for 25 days versus usual care, and in a second (1:1) randomisation to receive aspirin 100 mg once daily for 28 days versus usual care. Investigators and patients were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was assessed at 45 days in the intention-to-treat population; for the colchicine randomisation it was hospitalisation or death, and for the aspirin randomisation it was major thrombosis, hospitalisation, or death. The ACT outpatient trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04324463 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 27, 2020, and Feb 10, 2022, 3917 patients were randomly assigned to colchicine or control and to aspirin or control; after excluding 36 patients due to administrative reasons 3881 individuals were included in the analysis (n=1939 colchicine vs n=1942 control; n=1945 aspirin vs 1936 control). Follow-up was more than 99% complete. Overall event rates were 5 (0·1%) of 3881 for major thrombosis, 123 (3·2%) of 3881 for hospitalisation, and 23 (0·6%) of 3881 for death; 66 (3·4%) of 1939 patients allocated to colchicine and 65 (3·3%) of 1942 patients allocated to control experienced hospitalisation or death (hazard ratio [HR] 1·02, 95% CI 0·72-1·43, p=0·93); and 59 (3·0%) of 1945 of patients allocated to aspirin and 73 (3·8%) of 1936 patients allocated to control experienced major thrombosis, hospitalisation, or death (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·57-1·13, p=0·21). Results for the primary outcome were consistent in all prespecified subgroups, including according to baseline vaccination status, timing of randomisation in relation to onset of symptoms (post-hoc analysis), and timing of enrolment according to the phase of the pandemic (post-hoc analysis). There were more serious adverse events with colchicine than with control (34 patients [1·8%] of 1939 vs 27 [1·4%] of 1942) but none in either group that led to discontinuation of study interventions. There was no increase in serious adverse events with aspirin versus control (31 [1·6%] vs 31 [1·6%]) and none that led to discontinuation of study interventions. INTERPRETATION: The results provide no support for the use of colchicine or aspirin to prevent disease progression or death in outpatients with COVID-19. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Bayer, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences Research Institute, and Thistledown Foundation. TRANSLATIONS: For the Portuguese, Russian and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease is accompanied by a dysregulated immune response and hypercoagulability. The Anti-Coronavirus Therapies (ACT) inpatient trial aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory therapy with colchicine and antithrombotic therapy with the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin for prevention of disease progression in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: The ACT inpatient, open-label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised, controlled trial was done at 62 clinical centres in 11 countries. Patients aged at least 18 years with symptomatic, laboratory confirmed COVID-19 who were within 72 h of hospitalisation or worsening clinically if already hospitalised were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive colchicine 1·2 mg followed by 0·6 mg 2 h later and then 0·6 mg twice daily for 28 days versus usual care; and in a second (1:1) randomisation, to the combination of rivaroxaban 2·5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg once daily for 28 days versus usual care. Investigators and patients were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome, assessed at 45 days in the intention-to-treat population, for the colchicine randomisation was the composite of the need for high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, or death; and for the rivaroxaban plus aspirin randomisation was the composite of major thrombosis (myocardial infarction, stroke, acute limb ischaemia, or pulmonary embolism), the need for high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation, or death. The trial is registered at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov, NCT04324463 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Oct 2, 2020, and Feb 10, 2022, at 62 sites in 11 countries, 2749 patients were randomly assigned to colchicine or control and the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin or to the control. 2611 patients were included in the analysis of colchicine (n=1304) versus control (n=1307); 2119 patients were included in the analysis of rivaroxaban and aspirin (n=1063) versus control (n=1056). Follow-up was more than 98% complete. Overall, 368 (28·2%) of 1304 patients allocated to colchicine and 356 (27·2%) of 1307 allocated to control had a primary outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 1·04, 95% CI 0·90-1·21, p=0·58); and 281 (26·4%) of 1063 patients allocated to the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin and 300 (28·4%) of 1056 allocated to control had a primary outcome (HR 0·92, 95% CI 0·78-1·09, p=0·32). Results were consistent in subgroups defined by vaccination status, disease severity at baseline, and timing of randomisation in relation to onset of symptoms. There was no increase in the number of patients who had at least one serious adverse event for colchicine versus control groups (87 [6·7%] of 1304 vs 90 [6·9%] of 1307) or with rivaroxaban and aspirin versus control groups (85 [8·0%] vs 91 [8·6%]). Among patients assigned to colchicine, 8 (0·61%) had adverse events that led to discontinuation of study drug, mostly gastrointestinal in nature. 17 (1·6%) patients assigned to the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin had bleeding compared with seven (0·66%) of those allocated to control (p=0·042); the number of serious bleeding events was two (0·19%) versus six (0·57%), respectively (p=0·18). No patients assigned to rivaroxaban and aspirin had serious adverse events that led to discontinuation of study drug. INTERPRETATION: Among patients hospitalised with COVID-19, neither colchicine nor the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin prevent disease progression or death. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Bayer, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences Research Institute, Thistledown Foundation. TRANSLATIONS: For the Portuguese, Russian and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

15.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; : e1949, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Established in March 2020, the C19PRC Study monitors the psychological and socio-economic impact of the pandemic in the UK and other countries. This paper describes the protocol for Wave 6 (August-September 2021). METHODS: The survey assessed: COVID-19 related experiences; experiences of common mental health disorders; psychological characteristics; and social and political attitudes. Adult participants from any previous wave (N = 3170) were re-invited, and sample replenishment procedures helped manage attrition. Weights were calculated using a survey raking algorithm to ensure the on-going original panel (from baseline) was nationally representative in terms of gender, age, and household income, amongst other factors. RESULTS: 1643 adults were re-interviewed at Wave 6 (51.8% retention rate). Non-participation was higher younger adults, those born outside UK, and adults living in cities. Of the adults recruited at baseline, 54.3% (N = 1100) participated in Wave 6. New respondent (N = 415) entered the panel at this wave, resulting in cross-sectional sample for Wave 6 of 2058 adults. The raking procedure re-balanced the longitudinal panel to within 1.3% of population estimates for selected socio-demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: This paper outlines the growing strength of the publicly available C19PRC Study data for COVID-19-related interdisciplinary research.

16.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2189648.v1

ABSTRACT

Commonly identified trajectories of psychological distress in response to adverse events, like the COVID-19 pandemic, include Resilience, Delayed distress, Recovery and Sustained distress. The current study aimed to analyse these four distinct response patterns during the pandemic using network analysis. Anxiety and depression symptom data collected across four European countries over the first year of the pandemic were analysed (N = 3594). Participants were firstly categorised into one of the four aforementioned response patterns. Networks of symptoms were then estimated in each of these groups, and they were compared in relation to network connectivity and symptom clustering. Informed by network theory, it was hypothesised that greater levels of resiliency would be characterised by lower symptom connectivity and fewer symptom clusters. Two-thirds (64%) of the sample were categorised as displaying a pattern of Resilience. The connectivity hypothesis was partially supported: the Sustained distress group show higher connectivity than the Recovered group; however, the Resilient group showed higher connectivity than the Delayed distress group. Regarding symptom clustering, non-random clusters were identified in the Recovered and Sustained groups only, and, in contrast to the initial hypotheses, more clusters emerged in the Recovered group (three) than in the Sustained distress group (two). Our results replicated findings that resilience was the most common mental health pattern over the first year of the pandemic. Moreover, they suggested that high network connectivity may be indicative of a stable mental health response over time, whereas fewer symptom clusters may be indicative of a pattern of sustained distress. Although exploratory, the network perspective provided a useful tool to examine the complexity of patterns of psychological responses to adverse events, and if replicated, could be used to help identify indicators of protection against, or vulnerability to, psychological distress in future.

17.
Working Paper - Groupe de Recherche en Economie et Developpement International (GREDI) 2020. (20-10):34 pp. 30 ref. ; 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045283

ABSTRACT

We examine the effects of fiscal policy on the Quebec territory using data from Q1-1981 to Q1-2020. To do so, we estimate VAR models and extract government spending shocks according to the sign restriction method proposed by Uhlig (2005). The impulse responses of real GDP, household consumption, private non-residential investment, and the household confidence index to a temporary and positive government spending shock are all significantly positive in the short run. We find high multipliers for total government spending shocks-they are above 2 in the short run, while government investment spending is above 3.5 and shows greater persistence. The possible consequences of the pandemic and the stimulus package on Quebec's debt trajectory complete the analysis. Lastly, government investment spending is the best way to get the economy going and even lower the debt ratio to meet the goals for 2026.

18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274052, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between perceived manageability of debt and risk of depression, anxiety, and mental health help-seeking among a nationally representative sample of adults living in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Data was derived from the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study Wave 6 (August/September 2021) which examined the psychological, social, and economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the UK adult population. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between different levels of perceived debt manageability (i.e., "easily manageable", "some problems", "quite serious problems", "very serious problems", "cannot manage at all") and mental health related outcomes. RESULTS: Almost a quarter of the sample (24%, n = 494) reported debt management problems, and debt manageability associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, and mental health help-seeking. After adjusting for demographic variables (e.g. income, receipt of benefits), logistic regression analysis demonstrated a dose-response association between increasing levels of debt manageability problems and mental health outcomes. Specifically, adjusted odds ratios for anxiety ranged from 2.28 ('some problems') to 11.18 ('very serious problems'), for depression ranged from 2.80 ('some problems') to 16.21 ('cannot manage at all'), and for mental health help-seeking ranged from 1.69 ('some problems') to 3.18 ('quite serious problems', 'very serious problems'). CONCLUSION: This study highlights that debt manageability problems represent a robust predictor of depression, anxiety, and mental-health help seeking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
19.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated prolonged COVID-19 symptom duration, defined as lasting 28 days or longer, among people with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). METHODS: We analysed data from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Vaccine Survey (2 April 2021-15 October 2021) to identify people with SARDs reporting test-confirmed COVID-19. Participants reported COVID-19 severity and symptom duration, sociodemographics and clinical characteristics. We reported the proportion experiencing prolonged symptom duration and investigated associations with baseline characteristics using logistic regression. RESULTS: We identified 441 respondents with SARDs and COVID-19 (mean age 48.2 years, 83.7% female, 39.5% rheumatoid arthritis). The median COVID-19 symptom duration was 15 days (IQR 7, 25). Overall, 107 (24.2%) respondents had prolonged symptom duration (≥28 days); 42/429 (9.8%) reported symptoms lasting ≥90 days. Factors associated with higher odds of prolonged symptom duration included: hospitalisation for COVID-19 vs not hospitalised and mild acute symptoms (age-adjusted OR (aOR) 6.49, 95% CI 3.03 to 14.1), comorbidity count (aOR 1.11 per comorbidity, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.21) and osteoarthritis (aOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.01 to 4.27). COVID-19 onset in 2021 vs June 2020 or earlier was associated with lower odds of prolonged symptom duration (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.81). CONCLUSION: Most people with SARDs had complete symptom resolution by day 15 after COVID-19 onset. However, about 1 in 4 experienced COVID-19 symptom duration 28 days or longer; 1 in 10 experienced symptoms 90 days or longer. Future studies are needed to investigate the possible relationships between immunomodulating medications, SARD type/flare, vaccine doses and novel viral variants with prolonged COVID-19 symptoms and other postacute sequelae of COVID-19 among people with SARDs.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Rheumatology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Neurosurgery ; 91(6): e155-e159, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021411

ABSTRACT

Interviews are critical to the neurosurgery resident application process. The COVID-19 pandemic forced residency interview activities are conducted virtually. To maintain a degree of control during a period of uncertainty, our department implemented a standardized survey for interviewers to evaluate the noncognitive attributes and program compatibility of applicants. Our objective was to assess the reliability and biases associated with our standardized interviewer survey implemented in neurosurgical residency interviews. A 5-question interviewer survey to assess applicant interview performance and program compatibility was implemented during the 2020 to 2021 interview season. After the application cycle, survey metrics were retrospectively reviewed. Multiple cohort analyses were performed by dividing interviewers into cohorts based on status (faculty or resident) and sex. Applicant scores were assessed within sex subgroups for each aforementioned interviewer cohort. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess survey reliability. Fifteen interviewers (8 faculty and 7 residents) and 35 applicants were included. Female applicants (17%) and interviewers (20%) comprised the minority. There were no differences between resident and faculty reviewer scores; however, female reviewers gave higher overall scores than male reviewers ( P = .003). There was no difference in total scores between female and male applicants when evaluating all reviewers or subgroups of faculty, residents, females, or males. ICC analysis demonstrated good (ICC 0.75-0.90) or excellent (ICC > 0.90) reliability for all questions and overall score. The standardized interviewer survey was a feasible and reliable method for evaluating noncognitive attributes during neurosurgery residency interviews. There was no perceptible evidence of sex bias in our single-program experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Male , Female , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
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