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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1976, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783980

ABSTRACT

Global genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 has identified variants associated with increased transmissibility, neutralization resistance and disease severity. Here we report the emergence of the PANGO lineage C.1.2, detected at low prevalence in South Africa and eleven other countries. The initial C.1.2 detection is associated with a high substitution rate, and includes changes within the spike protein that have been associated with increased transmissibility or reduced neutralization sensitivity in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern or variants of interest. Like Beta and Delta, C.1.2 shows significantly reduced neutralization sensitivity to plasma from vaccinees and individuals infected with the ancestral D614G virus. In contrast, convalescent donors infected with either Beta or Delta show high plasma neutralization against C.1.2. These functional data suggest that vaccine efficacy against C.1.2 will be equivalent to Beta and Delta, and that prior infection with either Beta or Delta will likely offer protection against C.1.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100510, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636907

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) exhibit escape from neutralizing antibodies, causing concern about vaccine effectiveness. However, while non-neutralizing cytotoxic functions of antibodies are associated with improved disease outcome and vaccine protection, Fc effector function escape from VOCs is poorly defined. Furthermore, whether VOCs trigger Fc functions with altered specificity, as has been reported for neutralization, is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Beta VOC partially evades Fc effector activity in individuals infected with the original (D614G) variant. However, not all functions are equivalently affected, suggesting differential targeting by antibodies mediating distinct Fc functions. Furthermore, Beta and Delta infection trigger responses with significantly improved Fc cross-reactivity against global VOCs compared with D614G-infected or Ad26.COV2.S-vaccinated individuals. This suggests that, as for neutralization, the infecting spike sequence affects Fc effector function. These data have important implications for vaccine strategies that incorporate VOCs, suggesting these may induce broader Fc effector responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , THP-1 Cells , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/methods
4.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486408

ABSTRACT

The HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) conference catalyzes knowledge sharing on biomedical HIV prevention interventions such as HIV vaccines, antibody infusions, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and microbicides in totality-from the molecular details and delivery formulations to the behavioral, social, and structural underpinnings. HIVR4P // Virtual was held over the course of 2 weeks on January 27-28 and February 3-4, 2021 as the COVID-19 pandemic continued to inflict unprecedented harm globally. The HIVR4P community came together with 1,802 researchers, care providers, policymakers, implementers, and advocates from 92 countries whose expertise spanned the breadth of the HIV prevention pipeline from preclinical to implementation. The program included 113 oral and 266 poster presentations. This article presents a brief summary of the conference highlights. Complete abstracts, webcasts, and daily rapporteur summaries may be found on the conference website (https://www.hivr4p.org/).

5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(11): 1611-1619.e5, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466221

ABSTRACT

The Johnson and Johnson Ad26.COV2.S single-dose vaccine represents an attractive option for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in countries with limited resources. We examined the effect of prior infection with different SARS-CoV-2 variants on Ad26.COV2.S immunogenicity. We compared participants who were SARS-CoV-2 naive with those either infected with the ancestral D614G virus or infected in the second wave when Beta predominated. Prior infection significantly boosts spike-binding antibodies, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and neutralizing antibodies against D614G, Beta, and Delta; however, neutralization cross-reactivity varied by wave. Robust CD4 and CD8 T cell responses are induced after vaccination, regardless of prior infection. T cell recognition of variants is largely preserved, apart from some reduction in CD8 recognition of Delta. Thus, Ad26.COV2.S vaccination after infection could result in enhanced protection against COVID-19. The impact of the infecting variant on neutralization breadth after vaccination has implications for the design of second-generation vaccines based on variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
6.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 25(6): 467-477, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145996

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antibodies mediate pathogen neutralization in addition to several cytotoxic Fc functions through engaging cellular receptors and recruiting effector cells. Fc effector functions have been well described in disease control and protection against infectious diseases including HIV, Ebola, malaria, influenza and tuberculosis, making them attractive targets for vaccine design. AREAS COVERED: We briefly summarize the role of Fc effector functions in disease control and protection in viral, bacterial and parasitic infectious diseases. We review Fc effector function in passive immunization and vaccination, and primarily focus on strategies to elicit and modulate these functions as part of a robust vaccine strategy. EXPERT OPINION: Despite their known correlation with vaccine efficacy for several diseases, only recently have seminal studies addressed how these Fc effector functions can be elicited and modulated in vaccination. However, gaps remain in assay standardization and the precise mechanisms of diverse functional assays. Furthermore, there are inherent difficulties in the translation of findings from animal models to humans, given the difference in sequence, expression and function of Fc receptors and Fc portions of antibodies. However, overall it is clear that vaccine development to elicit Fc effector function is an important goal for optimal prevention against infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Receptors, Fc/physiology , Viral Vaccines/chemical synthesis , Animals , Humans , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
7.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100313, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240648

ABSTRACT

The continual emergence of novel coronaviruses (CoV), such as severe acute respiratory syndrome-(SARS)-CoV-2, highlights the critical need for broadly reactive therapeutics and vaccines against this family of viruses. From a recovered SARS-CoV donor sample, we identify and characterize a panel of six monoclonal antibodies that cross-react with CoV spike (S) proteins from the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and demonstrate a spectrum of reactivity against other CoVs. Epitope mapping reveals that these antibodies recognize multiple epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 S, including the receptor-binding domain, the N-terminal domain, and the S2 subunit. Functional characterization demonstrates that the antibodies mediate phagocytosis-and in some cases trogocytosis-but not neutralization in vitro. When tested in vivo in murine models, two of the antibodies demonstrate a reduction in hemorrhagic pathology in the lungs. The identification of cross-reactive epitopes recognized by functional antibodies expands the repertoire of targets for pan-coronavirus vaccine design strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phagocytosis , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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