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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2314678, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322210

ABSTRACT

Importance: Existing reports of pregnant patients with COVID-19 disease who require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are limited, with variable outcomes noted for the maternal-fetal dyad. Objective: To examine maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with ECMO used for COVID-19 with respiratory failure during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective multicenter cohort study examined pregnant and postpartum patients who required ECMO for COVID-19 respiratory failure at 25 hospitals across the US. Eligible patients included individuals who received care at one of the study sites, were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy or up to 6 weeks post partum by positive nucleic acid or antigen test, and for whom ECMO was initiated for respiratory failure from March 1, 2020, to October 1, 2022. Exposures: ECMO in the setting of COVID-19 respiratory failure. Main outcome and measures: The primary outcome was maternal mortality. Secondary outcomes included serious maternal morbidity, obstetrical outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. Outcomes were compared by timing of infection during pregnancy or post partum, timing of ECMO initiation during pregnancy or post partum, and periods of circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Results: From March 1, 2020, to October 1, 2022, 100 pregnant or postpartum individuals were started on ECMO (29 [29.0%] Hispanic, 25 [25.0%] non-Hispanic Black, 34 [34.0%] non-Hispanic White; mean [SD] age: 31.1 [5.5] years), including 47 (47.0%) during pregnancy, 21 (21.0%) within 24 hours post partum, and 32 (32.0%) between 24 hours and 6 weeks post partum; 79 (79.0%) had obesity, 61 (61.0%) had public or no insurance, and 67 (67.0%) did not have an immunocompromising condition. The median (IQR) ECMO run was 20 (9-49) days. There were 16 maternal deaths (16.0%; 95% CI, 8.2%-23.8%) in the study cohort, and 76 patients (76.0%; 95% CI, 58.9%-93.1%) had 1 or more serious maternal morbidity events. The largest serious maternal morbidity was venous thromboembolism and occurred in 39 patients (39.0%), which was similar across ECMO timing (40.4% pregnant [19 of 47] vs 38.1% [8 of 21] immediately postpartum vs 37.5% postpartum [12 of 32]; P > .99). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter US cohort study of pregnant and postpartum patients who required ECMO for COVID-19-associated respiratory failure, most survived but experienced a high frequency of serious maternal morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiratory Insufficiency , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Postpartum Period , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(3): 368-372, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222779

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes associated with monoclonal antibody use in pregnant persons with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We present a retrospective case series of pregnant patients who received anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) monoclonal antibody infusions at a single center from April 1, 2021, through October 16, 2021. Pregnant patients who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test result and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 symptoms were eligible for monoclonal antibody infusion. Exclusion criteria for administration included need for supplemental oxygen, hospitalization due to COVID-19, and positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test result more than 7 days before screening. All patients received either bamlanivimab plus etesevimab or casirivimab plus imdevimab based on availability and dosing instructions of the product and emerging resistance patterns in the community. RESULTS: During the study period, monoclonal antibody infusions were administered to 450 individuals at our institution, of whom 15 were pregnant. Of the 15 pregnant persons receiving monoclonal antibody, six (40%) had full-vaccination status at the time of infusion. Two individuals (13%, CI 0-31%) experienced systemic reactions during the infusion, both resulting in temporary changes in the fetal heart rate tracing that recovered with maternal and intrauterine resuscitative efforts. One patient delivered after infusion for worsening maternal and fetal status; the remainder of the patients did not require admission for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In this case series, pregnant persons who received anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody infusions had generally favorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Fetal Heart/drug effects , Humans , Overtreatment , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
5.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 6(12): ytac453, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161003

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) often experience the addition of new symptoms after recovery from COVID-19 illness. These may include orthostatic intolerance and autonomic dysfunction, and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome has been described to occur in a proportion of patients with PASC. Case summary: In this report, we present a 32-year-old pregnant woman (G3P2) who experiences severe orthostatic symptoms as part of her PASC syndrome, which is decoupled from normal physiologic changes of pregnancy. At 25 weeks of gestation, she was evaluated for increasing episodes of dyspnoea, marked tachycardia with minimal exertion, intermittent non-exertional chest pain, and presyncope. This patient had a moderate course of COVID-19 at 12 weeks of gestation, for which she received monoclonal antibody therapy (casirivimab/imdevimab). The patient then had complete resolution of COVID-19 symptoms and felt well for 1 month prior to developing orthostatic symptoms at 25 weeks of gestation. Evaluation with a NASA Lean Test revealed marked orthostatic tachycardia, as well as delayed orthostatic hypotension. Given her COVID-19 illness 4 months prior, PASC involving autonomic dysfunction was diagnosed. Discussion: Patients with orthostatic symptoms in PASC should be carefully evaluated with dedicated active stand tests, such as the NASA Lean Test, to characterize the autonomic response to standing. In pregnant patients, an understanding of normal pregnancy physiology is crucial to correctly identify abnormal findings in such tests.

7.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(1): 82-87, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe two cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and resulting in premature delivery. STUDY DESIGN: The clinical course of two women hospitalized with ARDS due to COVID-19 care in our intensive care (ICU) is summarized; both participants provided consent to be included in this case series. RESULTS: Both women recovered with no clinical sequelae. Neonatal outcomes were within the realm of expected for prematurity with the exception of coagulopathy. There was no vertical transmission to the neonates. CONCLUSION: This case series highlights that ECMO is a feasible treatment in the pregnant woman with severe COVID-19 and that delivery can be performed safely on ECMO with no additional risk to the fetus. While ECMO carries its natural risks, it should be considered a viable option during pregnancy and the postpartum period. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 may present with a more severe course in pregnancy.. · ECMO may be used in pregnant woman with severe COVID-19.. · Delivery can be performed on ECMO without added fetal risk..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cesarean Section/methods , Critical Care/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Obesity/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Risk Adjustment/methods , Treatment Outcome
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