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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 984376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065516

ABSTRACT

Background: Individuals with primary and secondary immunodeficiency (PID/SID) were shown to be at risk of poor outcomes during the early stages of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines demonstrate reduced immunogenicity in these patients. Objectives: To understand whether the risk of severe COVID-19 in individuals with PID or SID has changed following the deployment of vaccination and therapeutics in the context of the emergence of novel viral variants of concern. Methods: The outcomes of two cohorts of patients with PID and SID were compared: the first, infected between March and July 2020, prior to vaccination and treatments, the second after these intervention became available between January 2021 and April 2022. Results: 22.7% of immunodeficient patients have been infected at least once with SARS-CoV-2 since the start of the pandemic, compared to over 70% of the general population. Immunodeficient patients were typically infected later in the pandemic when the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant was dominant. This delay was associated with receipt of more vaccine doses and higher pre-infection seroprevalence. Compared to March-July 2020, hospitalization rates (53.3% vs 17.9%, p<0.0001) and mortality (Infection fatality rate 20.0% vs 3.4%, p=0.0003) have significantly reduced for patients with PID but remain elevated compared to the general population. The presence of a serological response to vaccination was associated with a reduced duration of viral detection by PCR in the nasopharynx. Early outpatient treatment with antivirals or monoclonal antibodies reduced hospitalization during the Omicron wave. Conclusions: Most individuals with immunodeficiency in the United Kingdom remain SARS-CoV-2 infection naïve. Vaccination, widespread availability of outpatient treatments and, possibly, the emergence of the B.1.1.529 variant have led to significant improvements in morbidity and mortality followings SARS-CoV-2 infection since the start of the pandemic. However, individuals with PID and SID remain at significantly increased risk of poor outcomes compared to the general population; mitigation, vaccination and treatment strategies must be optimized to minimize the ongoing burden of the pandemic in these vulnerable cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sudden Infant Death , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
2.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vitamin D (VD) deficiency may increase individuals' risk of COVID-19 infection and susceptibility. We aimed to determine the relationship between VD deficiency and sufficiency and COVID-19 seropositivity within healthcare workers. METHODS: The study included an observational cohort of healthcare workers who isolated due to COVID-19 symptoms from 12 May to 22 May 2020, from the University Hospitals Birmingham National Health Service Foundation Trust. Data collected included SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion status, serum 25(OH)D3 levels, age, body mass index (BMI), sex, ethnicity, job role and comorbidities. Participants were grouped into four VD categories: (1) Severe VD deficiency (VD<30 nmol/L); (2) VD deficiency (30 nmol/L ≤VD<50 nmol/L); (3) VD insufficiency (50 nmol/L ≤VD<75 nmol/L); (4) VD sufficiency (VD≥75 nmol/L). RESULTS: When VD levels were compared against COVID-19 seropositivity rate, a U-shaped curve was identified. This trend repeated when participants were split into subgroups of age, sex, ethnicity, BMI and comorbidity status. Significant difference was identified in the COVID-19 seropositivity rate between VD groups in the total population and between groups of men and women; black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) group; BMI<30 (kg/m2); 0 and +1 comorbidities; the majority of which were differences when the severely VD deficient category were compared with the other groups. A larger proportion of those within the BAME group (vs white ethnicity) were severely VD deficient (p<0.00001). A larger proportion of the 0 comorbidity subgroup were VD deficient in comparison to the 1+ comorbidity subgroup (p=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown a U-shaped relationship for COVID-19 seropositivity in UK healthcare workers. Further investigation is required to determine whether high VD levels can have a detrimental effect on susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. Future randomised clinical trials of VD supplementation could potentially identify 'optimal' VD levels, allowing for targeted therapeutic treatment for those at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
3.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046031

ABSTRACT

Two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces a strong systemic SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral response. However, SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission makes mucosal immune response a crucial first line of defense. Therefore, we characterized SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG responses induced by BNT162b2 vaccine, as well as IgG responses to other pathogenic and seasonal human coronaviruses in oral fluid and plasma from 200 UK healthcare workers who were naïve (N=62) or previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (N=138) using a pan-coronavirus multiplex binding immunoassay (Meso Scale Discovery®). Additionally, we investigated the impact of historical SARS-CoV-2 infection on vaccine-induced IgG, IgA and neutralizing responses in selected oral fluid samples before vaccination, after a first and second dose of BNT162b2, as well as following a third dose of mRNA vaccine or breakthrough infections using the same immunoassay and an ACE2 inhibition assay. Prior to vaccination, we found that spike-specific IgG levels in oral fluid positively correlated with IgG levels in plasma from previously-infected individuals (Spearman r=0.6858, p<0.0001) demonstrating that oral fluid could be used as a proxy for the presence of plasma SARS-CoV-2 IgG. However, the sensitivity was lower in oral fluid (0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.91) than in plasma (0.94, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). Similar kinetics of mucosal and systemic spike-specific IgG levels were observed following vaccination in naïve and previously-infected individuals, respectively. In addition, a significant enhancement of OC43 and HKU1 spike-specific IgG levels was observed in previously-infected individuals following one vaccine dose in oral fluid (OC43 S: p<0.0001;HKU1 S: p=0.0423) suggesting cross-reactive IgG responses to seasonal beta coronaviruses. Mucosal spike-specific IgA responses were induced by mRNA vaccination particularly in previously-infected individuals (71%) but less frequently in naïve participants (23%). Neutralizing responses to SARS-CoV-2 ancestral and variants of concerns were detected following vaccination in naïve and previously-infected participants, with likely contribution from both IgG and IgA in previously-infected individuals (correlations between neutralizing responses and IgG: Spearman r=0.5642, p<0.0001;IgA: Spearman r=0.4545, p=0.0001). We also observed that breakthrough infections or a third vaccine dose enhanced mucosal antibody levels and neutralizing responses. These data contribute to show that a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection tailors the mucosal antibody profile induced by vaccination.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044040

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines vary for reasons that remain poorly understood. A range of sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical, pharmacologic and nutritional factors could explain these differences. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested for presence of combined IgG, IgA and IgM (IgGAM) anti-Spike antibodies before and after 2 doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (ChAdOx1, AstraZeneca) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) in UK adults participating in a population-based longitudinal study who received their first dose of vaccine between December 2020 and July 2021. Information on sixty-six potential sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical, pharmacologic and nutritional determinants of serological response to vaccination was captured using serial online questionnaires. We used logistic regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations between independent variables and risk of seronegativity following two vaccine doses. Additionally, percentage differences in antibody titres between groups were estimated in the sub-set of participants who were seropositive post-vaccination using linear regression. Anti-spike antibodies were undetectable in 378/9101 (4.2%) participants at a median of 8.6 weeks post second vaccine dose. Increased risk of post-vaccination seronegativity associated with administration of ChAdOx1 vs. BNT162b2 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.6, 95% CI 4.2-10.4), shorter interval between vaccine doses (aOR 1.6, 1.2-2.1, 6-10 vs. >10 weeks), poor vs. excellent general health (aOR 3.1, 1.4-7.0), immunodeficiency (aOR 6.5, 2.5-16.6) and immunosuppressant use (aOR 3.7, 2.4-5.7). Odds of seronegativity were lower for participants who were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive pre-vaccination (aOR 0.2, 0.0-0.6) and for those taking vitamin D supplements (aOR 0.7, 0.5-0.9). Serologic responses to vaccination did not associate with time of day of vaccine administration, lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, alcohol intake and sleep, or use of anti-pyretics for management of reactive symptoms after vaccination. In a sub-set of 8727 individuals who were seropositive post-vaccination, lower antibody titres associated with administration of ChAdOx1 vs. BNT162b2 (43.4% lower, 41.8-44.8), longer duration between second vaccine dose and sampling (12.7% lower, 8.2-16.9, for 9-16 weeks vs. 2-4 weeks), shorter interval between vaccine doses (10.4% lower, 3.7-16.7, for <6 weeks vs. >10 weeks), receiving a second vaccine dose in October-December vs. April-June (47.7% lower, 11.4-69.1), older age (3.3% lower per 10-year increase in age, 2.1-4.6), and hypertension (4.1% lower, 1.1-6.9). Higher antibody titres associated with South Asian ethnicity (16.2% higher, 3.0-31.1, vs. White ethnicity) or Mixed/Multiple/Other ethnicity (11.8% higher, 2.9-21.6, vs. White ethnicity), higher body mass index (BMI; 2.9% higher, 0.2-5.7, for BMI 25-30 vs. <25 kg/m2) and pre-vaccination seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 (105.1% higher, 94.1-116.6, for those seropositive and experienced COVID-19 symptoms vs. those who were seronegative pre-vaccination). In conclusion, we identify multiple determinants of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, many of which are modifiable.

5.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043873

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to associate with the impaired development of antigen-specific responses following vaccination. We aimed to determine whether vitamin D supplements might boost the immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination by conducting three sub-studies nested within the CORONAVIT randomised controlled trial, which investigated the effects of offering vitamin D supplements at a dose of 800 IU/day or 3200 IU/day vs. no offer on risk of acute respiratory infections in UK adults with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <75 nmol/L. Sub-study 1 (n = 2808) investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection following two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Sub-study 2 (n = 1853) investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on titres of combined IgG, IgA and IgM (IgGAM) anti-Spike antibodies in eluates of dried blood spots collected after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Sub-study 3 (n = 100) investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on neutralising antibody and cellular responses in venous blood samples collected after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. In total, 1945/2808 (69.3%) sub-study 1 participants received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca); the remainder received two doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer). Mean follow-up 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly elevated in the 800 IU/day vs. no-offer group (82.5 vs. 53.6 nmol/L; mean difference 28.8 nmol/L, 95% CI 22.8-34.8) and in the 3200 IU/day vs. no offer group (105.4 vs. 53.6 nmol/L; mean difference 51.7 nmol/L, 45.1-58.4). Vitamin D supplementation did not influence the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated participants (800 IU/day vs. no offer: adjusted hazard ratio 1.28, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.84; 3200 IU/day vs. no offer: 1.17, 0.81 to 1.70). Neither did it influence IgGAM anti-Spike titres, neutralising antibody titres or IFN-γ concentrations in the supernatants of S peptide-stimulated whole blood. In conclusion, vitamin D replacement at a dose of 800 or 3200 IU/day effectively elevated 25(OH)D concentrations, but it did not influence the protective efficacy or immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination when given to adults who had a sub-optimal vitamin D status at baseline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy , Vitamin D , Vitamins
7.
BMJ ; 378: e071230, 2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009215

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of population level implementation of a test-and-treat approach to correction of suboptimal vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <75 nmol/L) on risk of all cause acute respiratory tract infection and covid 19. DESIGN: Phase 3 open label randomised controlled trial. SETTING: United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 6200 people aged ≥16 years who were not taking vitamin D supplements at baseline. INTERVENTIONS: Offer of a postal finger prick test of blood 25(OH)D concentration with provision of a six month supply of lower dose vitamin D (800 IU/day, n=1550) or higher dose vitamin D (3200 IU/day, n=1550) to those with blood 25(OH)D concentration <75 nmol/L, compared with no offer of testing or supplementation (n=3100). Follow-up was for six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with at least one swab test or doctor confirmed acute respiratory tract infection of any cause. A secondary outcome was the proportion of participants with swab test confirmed covid-19. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. The primary analysis was conducted by intention to treat. RESULTS: Of 3100 participants offered a vitamin D test, 2958 (95.4%) accepted and 2674 (86.3%) had 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/L and received vitamin D supplements (n=1328 lower dose, n=1346 higher dose). Compared with 136/2949 (4.6%) participants in the no offer group, at least one acute respiratory tract infection of any cause occurred in 87/1515 (5.7%) in the lower dose group (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.66) and 76/1515 (5.0%) in the higher dose group (1.09, 0.82 to 1.46). Compared with 78/2949 (2.6%) participants in the no offer group, 55/1515 (3.6%) developed covid-19 in the lower dose group (1.39, 0.98 to 1.97) and 45/1515 (3.0%) in the higher dose group (1.13, 0.78 to 1.63). CONCLUSIONS: Among people aged 16 years and older with a high baseline prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status, implementation of a population level test-and-treat approach to vitamin D supplementation was not associated with a reduction in risk of all cause acute respiratory tract infection or covid-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04579640.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cholecalciferol , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
8.
Virus evolution ; 8(2), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999627

ABSTRACT

Long-term severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in immunodeficient patients are an important source of variation for the virus but are understudied. Many case studies have been published which describe one or a small number of long-term infected individuals but no study has combined these sequences into a cohesive dataset. This work aims to rectify this and study the genomics of this patient group through a combination of literature searches as well as identifying new case series directly from the COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) dataset. The spike gene receptor-binding domain and N-terminal domain (NTD) were identified as mutation hotspots. Numerous mutations associated with variants of concern were observed to emerge recurrently. Additionally a mutation in the envelope gene, T30I was determined to be the second most frequent recurrently occurring mutation arising in persistent infections. A high proportion of recurrent mutations in immunodeficient individuals are associated with ACE2 affinity, immune escape, or viral packaging optimisation. There is an apparent selective pressure for mutations that aid cell–cell transmission within the host or persistence which are often different from mutations that aid inter-host transmission, although the fact that multiple recurrent de novo mutations are considered defining for variants of concern strongly indicates that this potential source of novel variants should not be discounted.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997060

ABSTRACT

In this population-based cohort of 7538 adults, combined IgG/A/M anti-Spike titres measured after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were predictive of protection against breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection. Discrimination was significantly improved by adjustment for factors influencing risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, including household overcrowding, public transport use, and visits to indoor public places. Anti-Spike IgG/A/M titres showed positive correlation with neutralising antibody titres (r-s = 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.86; p < 0.0001) and S peptide-stimulated interferon-γ concentrations (r-s = 0.31, 0.13-0.47; p = 0.0009).

10.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940080

ABSTRACT

Antibodies specific for the spike glycoprotein (S) and nucleocapsid (N) SARS-CoV-2 proteins are typically present during severe COVID-19, and induced to S after vaccination. The binding of viral antigens by antibody can initiate the classical complement pathway. Since complement could play pathological or protective roles at distinct times during SARS-CoV-2 infection we determined levels of antibody-dependent complement activation along the complement cascade. Here, we used an ELISA assay to assess complement protein binding (C1q) and the deposition of C4b, C3b, and C5b to S and N antigens in the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 from different test groups: non-infected, single and double vaccinees, non-hospitalised convalescent (NHC) COVID-19 patients and convalescent hospitalised (ITU-CONV) COVID-19 patients. C1q binding correlates strongly with antibody responses, especially IgG1 levels. However, detection of downstream complement components, C4b, C3b and C5b shows some variability associated with the subject group from whom the sera were obtained. In the ITU-CONV, detection of C3b-C5b to S was observed consistently, but this was not the case in the NHC group. This is in contrast to responses to N, where median levels of complement deposition did not differ between the NHC and ITU-CONV groups. Moreover, for S but not N, downstream complement components were only detected in sera with higher IgG1 levels. Therefore, the classical pathway is activated by antibodies to multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens, but the downstream effects of this activation may differ depending the disease status of the subject and on the specific antigen targeted.

11.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(1): e21-e31, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the immune response to the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell and antibody responses in health-care workers with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection following a single dose of the BNT162b2 (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA vaccine. METHODS: We sampled health-care workers enrolled in the PITCH study across four hospital sites in the UK (Oxford, Liverpool, Newcastle, and Sheffield). All health-care workers aged 18 years or older consenting to participate in this prospective cohort study were included, with no exclusion criteria applied. Blood samples were collected where possible before vaccination and 28 (±7) days following one or two doses (given 3-4 weeks apart) of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Previous infection was determined by a documented SARS-CoV-2-positive RT-PCR result or the presence of positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies. We measured spike-specific IgG antibodies and quantified T-cell responses by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay in all participants where samples were available at the time of analysis, comparing SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals to those with previous infection. FINDINGS: Between Dec 9, 2020, and Feb 9, 2021, 119 SARS-CoV-2-naive and 145 previously infected health-care workers received one dose, and 25 SARS-CoV-2-naive health-care workers received two doses, of the BNT162b2 vaccine. In previously infected health-care workers, the median time from previous infection to vaccination was 268 days (IQR 232-285). At 28 days (IQR 27-33) after a single dose, the spike-specific T-cell response measured in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was higher in previously infected (n=76) than in infection-naive (n=45) health-care workers (median 284 [IQR 150-461] vs 55 [IQR 24-132] spot-forming units [SFUs] per 106 PBMCs; p<0·0001). With cryopreserved PBMCs, the T-cell response in previously infected individuals (n=52) after one vaccine dose was equivalent to that of infection-naive individuals (n=19) after receiving two vaccine doses (median 152 [IQR 119-275] vs 162 [104-258] SFUs/106 PBMCs; p=1·00). Anti-spike IgG antibody responses following a single dose in 142 previously infected health-care workers (median 270 373 [IQR 203 461-535 188] antibody units [AU] per mL) were higher than in 111 infection-naive health-care workers following one dose (35 001 [17 099-55 341] AU/mL; p<0·0001) and higher than in 25 infection-naive individuals given two doses (180 904 [108 221-242 467] AU/mL; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: A single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine is likely to provide greater protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, than in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals, including against variants of concern. Future studies should determine the additional benefit of a second dose on the magnitude and durability of immune responses in individuals vaccinated following infection, alongside evaluation of the impact of extending the interval between vaccine doses. FUNDING: UK Department of Health and Social Care, and UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 912571, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903032

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with primary and secondary antibody deficiency are vulnerable to COVID-19 and demonstrate diminished responses following two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine schedules. Third primary vaccinations have been deployed to enhance their humoral and cellular immunity. Objectives: To determine the immunogenicity of the third primary SARS-CoV-2 immunisation in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with antibody deficiency. Methods: Participants enrolled in the COV-AD study were sampled before and after their third vaccine dose. Serological and cellular responses were determined using ELISA, live-virus neutralisation and ELISPOT assays. Results: Following a two-dose schedule, 100% of healthy controls mounted a serological response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, however, 38.6% of individuals with antibody deficiency remained seronegative. A third primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine significantly increased anti-spike glycoprotein antibody seroprevalence from 61.4% to 76.0%, the magnitude of the antibody response, its neutralising capacity and induced seroconversion in individuals who were seronegative after two vaccine doses. Vaccine-induced serological responses were broadly cross-reactive against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant of concern, however, seroprevalence and antibody levels remained significantly lower than healthy controls. No differences in serological responses were observed between individuals who received AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Pfizer BioNTech 162b2 during their initial two-dose vaccine schedule. SARS-CoV-2 infection-naive participants who had received a heterologous vaccine as a third dose were significantly more likely to have a detectable T cell response following their third vaccine dose (61.5% vs 11.1%). Conclusion: These data support the widespread use of third primary immunisations to enhance humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with antibody deficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
13.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901161

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Thrombotic complications and vasculopathy have been extensively associated with severe COVID-19 infection, however the mechanisms inducing endotheliitis and the disruption of endothelial integrity in the microcirculation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that within the vessel wall, pericytes preferentially take up viral particles and mediate the subsequent loss of vascular integrity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunofluorescence of post-mortem patient sections were used to assess pathophysiological aspects of COVID19 infection. The effects of COVID-19 on the microvasculature were assessed using a vascular organoid model exposed to live viral particles or recombinant viral antigens. We find increased expression of the viral entry receptor ACE2 on pericytes when compared to vascular endothelium, and a reduction in the expression of the junctional protein CD144, as well as increased cell death, upon treatment with both live virus and/or viral antigens. We observe a dysregulation of genes implicated in vascular permeability including NOTCH3, angiopoietin-2 and TEK. Activation of vascular organoids with IL-1ß did not have an additive effect on vascular permeability. Spike antigen was detected in some patients' lung pericytes, which was associated with a decrease in CD144 expression and increased platelet recruitment and VWF deposition in the capillaries of these patients, with thrombi in large vessels rich in VWF and fibrin. CONCLUSIONS: Together our data indicates that direct viral exposure to the microvasculature modelled by organoid infection and viral antigen treatment result in pericyte infection, detachment, damage and cell death, disrupting pericyte-endothelial cell crosstalk and increasing microvascular endothelial permeability, which can promote thrombotic and bleeding complications in the microcirculation. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Endotheliitis is a serious complication of severe COVID-19 patients which remains poorly understood. We identify a pericyte mediated mechanism by which the vasculature becomes compromised, contributing to thrombotic complications, highlighting important avenues for the development of therapies.

14.
Journal of pediatric intensive care ; 11(2):124-129, 2020.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898164

ABSTRACT

We describe the critical care course of children with a novel hyperinflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with focus on trajectory before and after immunomodulation. Overall, 10 patients who met the U.K. Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health case definition during a 2-month study period were analyzed. All tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody. Although only 20% were ventilated, 100% required inotropic or vasopressor support. All children had significantly raised inflammatory markers with a median C-reactive protein of 248 (175–263) mg/L, ferritin of 1,561 (726–2,255) µg/L, and troponin-I of 723 (351–2,235) ng/L. Six patients had moderately impaired myocardial function and two had severe impairment. None needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Despite severe illness only a brief period of critical care support of 3 to 5 days was required. Eight received at least one dose of intravenous immunoglobulin. Six received high-dose steroids. Clinical improvement including cardiovascular stability and reduction in inflammatory markers may have occurred with and without immunomodulation.

15.
J Mol Diagn ; 24(4): 320-336, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895234

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have described reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for the rapid detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab and saliva samples. This multisite clinical evaluation describes the validation of an improved sample preparation method for extraction-free RT-LAMP and reports clinical performance of four RT-LAMP assay formats for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Direct RT-LAMP was performed on 559 swabs and 86,760 saliva samples and RNA RT-LAMP on extracted RNA from 12,619 swabs and 12,521 saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals across health care and community settings. For direct RT-LAMP, overall diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) was 70.35% (95% CI, 63.48%-76.60%) on swabs and 84.62% (95% CI, 79.50%-88.88%) on saliva, with diagnostic specificity of 100% (95% CI, 98.98%-100.00%) on swabs and 100% (95% CI, 99.72%-100.00%) on saliva, compared with quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR); analyzing samples with RT-qPCR ORF1ab CT values of ≤25 and ≤33, DSe values were 100% (95% CI, 96.34%-100%) and 77.78% (95% CI, 70.99%-83.62%) for swabs, and 99.01% (95% CI, 94.61%-99.97%) and 87.61% (95% CI, 82.69%-91.54%) for saliva, respectively. For RNA RT-LAMP, overall DSe and diagnostic specificity were 96.06% (95% CI, 92.88%-98.12%) and 99.99% (95% CI, 99.95%-100%) for swabs, and 80.65% (95% CI, 73.54%-86.54%) and 99.99% (95% CI, 99.95%-100%) for saliva, respectively. These findings demonstrate that RT-LAMP is applicable to a variety of use cases, including frequent, interval-based direct RT-LAMP of saliva from asymptomatic individuals who may otherwise be missed using symptomatic testing alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338347

ABSTRACT

Abstract Both infection and vaccination, alone or in combination, generate antibody and T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. However, the maintenance of such responses – and hence protection from disease – requires careful characterisation. In a large prospective study of UK healthcare workers (Protective immunity from T cells in Healthcare workers (PITCH), within the larger SARS-CoV-2 immunity & reinfection evaluation (SIREN) study) we previously observed that prior infection impacted strongly on subsequent cellular and humoral immunity induced after long and short dosing intervals of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccination. Here, we report longer follow up of 684 HCWs in this cohort over 6-9 months following two doses of BNT162b2 or AZ1222 (Oxford/AstraZeneca) vaccination and following a subsequent BNT162b2 booster vaccination. We make three observations: Firstly, the dynamics of humoral and cellular responses differ;binding and neutralising antibodies declined whereas T and memory B cell responses were maintained after the second vaccine dose. Secondly, vaccine boosting restored IgG levels, broadened neutralising activity against variants of concern including omicron BA.1, and further boosted T cell responses. Thirdly, prior infection maintained its impact driving larger as well as broader T cell responses compared to never-infected people – a feature maintained even after the third dose. In conclusion, broadly cross-reactive T cell responses are well maintained over time – especially in those with “hybrid” vaccine and infection- induced immunity – and may contribute to continued protection against severe disease.

18.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337871

ABSTRACT

Prospective population-based studies investigating associations between reactive symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and serologic responses to vaccination are lacking. We therefore conducted such a study in 9003 adults from the United Kingdom (UK) general population receiving SARS-COV-2 vaccines as part of the national vaccination programme. Data relating to incidence and type of reactive symptoms after vaccination were captured using online questionnaires, along with information on 56 potential determinants of symptom risk. Titres of combined IgG/IgA/IgM responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein were determined in eluates of dried blood spots collected from all participants before and after vaccination. 4262 (47.3%) participants experienced systemic reactive symptoms after a first vaccine dose. Factors associating with lower risk of such symptoms included older age (aOR per additional 10 years of age 0.85, 95% CI 0.81–0.90), male vs. female sex (aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.53–0.65) and receipt of an mRNA vaccine vs. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (0.29, 0.26–0.32 for BNT162b2;0.06, 0.01–0.26 for mRNA-1273). Higher risk of such symptoms was associated with a history of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to vaccination (2.23, 1.78–2.81) and presence vs. absence of self-rated anxiety or depression at cohort enrolment (1.24, 1.12–1.39). Post-vaccination anti-S titres were higher among participants who experienced reactive symptoms after vaccination vs. those who did not (P < 0.001). We conclude that factors influencing risk of systemic symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination include demographic characteristics, pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 serostatus and vaccine type. Participants experiencing reactive symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination had higher post-vaccination titres of IgG/A/M anti-S antibodies. Improved public understanding of the frequency of reactogenic symptoms and their positive association with vaccine immunogenicity could potentially increase vaccine uptake.

19.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(5): 923-934, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination prevents severe morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in the general population. The immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with antibody deficiency is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 in patients with antibody deficiency (COV-AD) is a multi-site UK study that aims to determine the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in patients with primary or secondary antibody deficiency, a population that suffers from severe and recurrent infection and does not respond well to vaccination. METHODS: Individuals on immunoglobulin replacement therapy or with an IgG less than 4 g/L receiving antibiotic prophylaxis were recruited from April 2021. Serological and cellular responses were determined using ELISA, live-virus neutralisation and interferon gamma release assays. SARS-CoV-2 infection and clearance were determined by PCR from serial nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: A total of 5.6% (n = 320) of the cohort reported prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, but only 0.3% remained PCR positive on study entry. Seropositivity, following two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, was 54.8% (n = 168) compared with 100% of healthy controls (n = 205). The magnitude of the antibody response and its neutralising capacity were both significantly reduced compared to controls. Participants vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine were more likely to be seropositive (65.7% vs. 48.0%, p = 0.03) and have higher antibody levels compared with the AstraZeneca vaccine (IgGAM ratio 3.73 vs. 2.39, p = 0.0003). T cell responses post vaccination was demonstrable in 46.2% of participants and were associated with better antibody responses but there was no difference between the two vaccines. Eleven vaccine-breakthrough infections have occurred to date, 10 of them in recipients of the AstraZeneca vaccine. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines demonstrate reduced immunogenicity in patients with antibody deficiency with evidence of vaccine breakthrough infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332618

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with primary and secondary antibody deficiency are vulnerable to COVID-19 and demonstrate diminished responses following two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine schedules. Third primary vaccinations have been deployed to enhance their humoral and cellular immunity. Objectives: To determine the immunogenicity of the third primary SARS-CoV-2 immunisation in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with antibody deficiency. Methods: Participants enrolled in the COV-AD study were sampled before and after their third vaccine dose. Serological and cellular responses were determined using ELISA, live-virus neutralisation and ELISPOT assays. Results: A third primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine significantly increased anti-spike glycoprotein antibody seroprevalence from 61.4% to 76.0%, the magnitude of the antibody response, its neutralising capacity and induced seroconversion in individuals who were seronegative after two vaccine doses. Vaccine-induced serological responses were broadly cross-reactive against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant of concern, however, overall seroprevalence and antibody levels remained significantly lower than healthy controls. No differences in serological responses were observed between individuals who received the AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Pfizer BioNTech 162b2 during their initial two-dose vaccine schedule. SARS-CoV-2 infection naive participants who had received a heterologous vaccine as a third dose were significantly more likely to have a detectable T cell responses following their third vaccine dose (61.5% vs 11.1%). Conclusion: These data support the widespread use of third primary immunisations to enhance humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with antibody deficiency.

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