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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0263548, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785190

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This paper describes how mortality among hospitalised COVID-19 patients changed during the first three waves of the epidemic in Italy. METHODS: This prospective cohort study used the Kaplan-Meier method to analyse the time-dependent probability of death of all of the patients admitted to a COVID-19 referral centre in Milan, Italy, during the three consecutive periods of: 21 February-31 July 2020 (first wave, W1), 1 August 2020-31 January 2021 (second wave, W2), and 1 February-30 April 2021 (third wave, W3). Cox models were used to examine the association between death and the period of admission after adjusting for age, biological sex, the time from symptom onset to admission, disease severity upon admission, obesity, and the comorbidity burden. RESULTS: Of the 2,023 COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital during the study period, 553 (27.3%) were admitted during W1, 838 (41.5%) during W2, and 632 (31.2%) during W3. The crude mortality rate during W1, W2 and W3 was respectively 21.3%, 23.7% and 15.8%. After adjusting for potential confounders, hospitalisation during W2 or W3 was independently associated with a significantly lower risk of death than hospitalisation during W1 (adjusted hazard ratios [AHRs]: 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.95, and 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.77). Among the patients aged >75 years, there was no significant difference in the probability of death during the three waves (AHRs during W2 and W3 vs W1: 0.93, 95% CI 0.65-1.33, and 0.88, 95% CI 0.59-1.32), whereas those presenting with critical disease during W2 and W3 were at significantly lower risk of dying than those admitted during W1 (AHRs 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.88, and 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalisation during W2 and W3 was associated with a reduced risk of COVID-19 death in comparison with W1, but there was no difference in survival probability in patients aged >75 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311147

ABSTRACT

Background: To assess differences in the probability of COVID-19-related death between native Italians and immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19. Methods This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data conducted at the ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy, between 21 February and 31 November 2020. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the impact of the patients' origin on the probability of COVID-19-related death. Results The study population consisted of 1,179 COVID-19 patients: 921 Italians (78.1%) and 258 immigrants (21.9%) from Latin America (99, 38.4%), Asia (72, 27.9%), Africa (50, 19.4%) and central/eastern Europe (37, 14.3%). The Italians were older (p < 0.001) and more frequently affected by co-morbidities (p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly greater among the Italians than the immigrants as a whole (26.6% vs 12.8%;p < 0.001), and significantly greater among the immigrants from Latin America than among those from Asia, Africa and central/eastern Europe (21.2% vs 8.3%, 6% and 8.1%, respectively;p = 0.016). Multivariate analyses showed that a Latin American origin was independently associated with an increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.17–3.23). Conclusions Our findings support the need to strengthen COVID-19 information and prevention initiatives in the Latin American community living in Milan.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4747-4754, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655943

ABSTRACT

In Italy, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign prioritized healthcare workers (HCWs) to receive two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, irrespective of a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this real-life study, we compared the humoral response to BNT162b2 vaccine in HCWs with and without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of the 407 HCWs enrolled, 334 (82.1%) were SARS-CoV-2-naive and 73 (17.9%) SARS-CoV-2-experienced. Post-vaccine humoral response was detectable in more than 98% of HCWs. Overall, the median level of anti-S IgG in SARS-COV-2-experienced HCWs was twice as high as those of SARS-CoV-2-naive subjects (24641.0 AU/mL [IQR: 15273.0->40000.0] versus 13053.8 [IQR: 7303.3-20105.8]; p < .001), irrespective of the time elapsed from SARS-CoV-2 previous infection. In a subgroup of SARS-CoV-2-naive and -experienced subjects who received only one dose of the vaccine, the latter showed 32 times higher levels of anti-S IgG compared to the former. Although no serious adverse events have been reported, mild to moderate side effects occurred more frequently after the first dose in the SARS-CoV-2-experienced than in naive subjects (67% versus 42%, respectively; p < .001). Notably, post-vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG levels ≥20,000 AU/mL were independently associated with the risk of fever ≥38°C (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.122, 95% CI 2.368-11.080, p < .0001).Our study showed high responsiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine and a relationship between levels of antibody response and reactogenicity. It suggests that a single dose of mRNA vaccine might evoke effective protection in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 63, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To compare differences in the probability of COVID-19-related death between native Italians and immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study of prospectively collected data was conducted at the ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Hospital in Milan, Italy, between 21 February and 31 November 2020. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the impact of the patients' origin on the probability of COVID-19-related death. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 1,179 COVID-19 patients: 921 Italians (78.1%) and 258 immigrants (21.9%) who came from Latin America (99, 38%), Asia (72, 28%), Africa (50, 19%) and central/eastern Europe (37, 14%). The Italians were significantly older than the immigrants (median age 70 years, interquartile range (IQR) 58-79 vs 51 years, IQR 41-60; p < 0.001), and more frequently had one or more co-morbidities (79.1% vs 53.9%; p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly greater among the Italians than the immigrants as a whole (26.6% vs 12.8%; p < 0.001), and significantly greater among the immigrants from Latin America than among those from Asia, Africa or central/eastern Europe (21% vs 8%, 6% and 8%; p = 0.016). Univariable analysis showed that the risk of COVID-19-related death was lower among the immigrants (hazard ratio [HR] 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.63; p < 0.0001], but the risk of Latin American immigrants did not significantly differ from that of the Italians (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.47-1.15; p = 0.183). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable analysis showed that there was no difference in the risk of death between the immigrants and the Italians (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.70-1.55; p = 0.831), but being of Latin American origin was independently associated with an increased risk of death (aHR 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.23; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was lower among the immigrants hospitalised with COVID-19 than among their Italian counterparts, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for confounders. However, the increased risk of death among immigrants of Latin American origin suggests that COVID-19 information and prevention initiatives need to be strengthened in this sub-population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(3): 299-304, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on HIV suppression rates in people living with HIV (PLWH) attending a large Italian HIV clinic. SETTING: The HIV outpatient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Department of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, which serves more than 5000 PLWH per year. METHODS: A before and after quasi-experimental study design was used to make a retrospective assessment of the monthly trend of HIV-RNA determinations of ≥50 among the PLWH attending our clinic, with "before" being the period from January 1, 2016 to February 20, 2020, and "after" being the period from February 21, 2020 to December 31, 2020 (the COVID-19 period). Interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate any changes in the trend. RESULTS: During the study period, 70,349 HIV-RNA viral load determinations were made, and the percentage of HIV-RNA viral load determinations of <50 copies/mL increased from 88.4% in 2016 to 93.2% in 2020 (P < 0.0001). There was a significant monthly trend toward a decrease in the number of HIV-RNA determinations of ≥50 copies/mL before the pandemic (ß -0.084; standard error 0.015; P < 0.001), and this did not significantly change after it started (ß -0.039, standard error 0.161; P = 0.811). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of viral suppression was maintained among the PLWH referring to our clinic, despite the structural barriers raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of simplified methods of delivering care (such as teleconsultations and multiple antiretroviral treatment prescriptions) may have contributed to preserving this continuum.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Delivery of Health Care/methods , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104931, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318940

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first European country hit by the COVID-19 pandemic and has the highest number of recorded COVID-19 deaths in Europe. This prospective cohort study of the correlates of the risk of death in COVID-19 patients was conducted at the Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care units of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy. The clinical characteristics of all the COVID-19 patients hospitalised in the early days of the epidemic (21 February -19 March 2020) were recorded upon admission, and the time-dependent probability of death was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method (censored as of 20 April 2020). Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the factors independently associated with the risk of death. Forty-eight (20.6 %) of the 233 patients followed up for a median of 40 days (interquartile range 33-47) died during the follow-up. Most were males (69.1 %) and their median age was 61 years (IQR 50-72). The time-dependent probability of death was 19.7 % (95 % CI 14.6-24.9 %) 30 days after hospital admission. Age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.08, 95 % CI 1.48-2.92 per ten years more) and obesity (aHR 3.04, 95 % CI 1.42-6.49) were independently associated with an increased risk of death, which was also associated with critical disease (aHR 8.26, 95 % CI 1.41-48.29), C-reactive protein levels (aHR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.02-1.35 per 50 mg/L more) and creatinine kinase levels above 185 U/L (aHR 2.58, 95 % CI 1.37-4.87) upon admission. Case-fatality rate of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the early days of the Italian epidemic was about 20 %. Our study adds evidence to the notion that older age, obesity and more advanced illness are factors associated to an increased risk of death among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104899, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318934

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is causing an increasing number of deaths worldwide because no effective treatment is currently available. Remdesivir has shown in vitro activity against coronaviruses and is a possible antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This prospective (compassionate), open-label study of remdesivir, which was conducted at Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, between February 23 and March 20, 2020, involved patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia aged ≥18 years undergoing mechanical ventilation or with an oxygen saturation level of ≤94 % in air or a National Early Warning Score 2 of ≥4. The primary outcome was the change in clinical status based on a 7-category ordinal scale (1 = not hospitalised, resuming normal daily activities; 7 = deceased). The 35 patients enrolled from February 23 to March 20, 2020, included 18 in intensive care unit (ICU), and 17 in our infectious diseases ward (IDW). The 10-day course of remdesivir was completed by 22 patients (63 %) and discontinued by 13, of whom eight (22.8 %) discontinued because of adverse events. The median follow-up was 39 days (IQR 25-44). At day 28, 14 (82.3 %) patients from IDW were discharged, two were still hospitalized and one died (5.9 %), whereas in ICU 6 (33.3 %) were discharged, 8 (44.4 %) patients died, three (16.7 %) were still mechanically ventilated and one (5.6 %) was improved but still hospitalized. Hypertransaminasemia and acute kidney injury were the most frequent severe adverse events observed (42.8 % and 22.8 % of the cases, respectively). Our data suggest that remdesivir can benefit patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia hospitalised outside ICU where clinical outcome was better and adverse events are less frequently observed. Ongoing randomised controlled trials will clarify its real efficacy and safety, who to treat, and when.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Betacoronavirus , Compassionate Use Trials/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Transaminases/blood , Treatment Outcome
8.
Prev Med Rep ; 23: 101471, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284461

ABSTRACT

Here, we aimed to describe the clinical outcomes of the residents of a long-term care facility during its closure to visitors and suppliers in response to the first COVID-19 pandemic from February 23 to June 22, 2020, and the results of the facility-wide SARS-CoV-2 testing of residents and staff in June 2020 before its partially reopening. Seventy-four residents and 53 members of staff were included in the present study. The staff underwent nasopharyngeal swab tests for SARS-CoV-2, and both the staff and residents underwent serological tests to detect IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The results of all of the tests were negative. Conversely, 94% of residents and 38% members of the staff were tested positive to the nasopharyngeal swab tests during the second COVID-19 pandemic wave (data collected from November 1 to November 30, 2020). Our experience suggests that, in the presence of a life-threatening pandemic such as SARS-CoV-2 infection, the prompt use of restrictive procedures can prevent the spread and progression of disease in assisted living facilities in the short term but may fail in the long term, especially when the prevalence of the COVID-19 greatly increased outside the facility enhancing the risk of import the disease from outside. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination of residents and staff members would contribute to control/limit the prevalence and the spread of the virus.

9.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4597-4602, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263097

ABSTRACT

Biological sex could affect the natural history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We enrolled all COVID-19 patients admitted to two COVID-19 hospitals in Milan in a prospective observational study. The primary outcome was death during the study period and the secondary outcome was critical disease at hospital admission. The association(s) between clinically relevant, noncollinear variables, and the primary outcome was assessed with uni- and multivariable Logistic regression models. A total of 520 patients were hospitalized of whom 349 (67%) were males with a median age 61 (interquartile range: 50-72). A higher proportion of males presented critically ill when compared to females (30.1% vs. 18.7%, p < .046). Death occurred in 86 (24.6%) males and 27 (15.8%) females (p = .024). In multivariable analysis age (per 10 years more) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.83 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.42-2.35], p < .0001), obesity (AOR: 2.17 [95% CI: 1.10-4.31], p = .026), critical disease at hospital admission (AOR 6.34 [95% CI: 3.50-11.48], p < .0001) were independently associated to higher odds of death whereas gender was not. In conclusion, a higher proportion of males presented critically ill at hospital admission. Age, critical disease at hospital admission, obesity, anemia, D-dimer, estimated glomerular filtration rate, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase predicted death in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Sex Ratio , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4597-4602, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130627

ABSTRACT

Biological sex could affect the natural history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We enrolled all COVID-19 patients admitted to two COVID-19 hospitals in Milan in a prospective observational study. The primary outcome was death during the study period and the secondary outcome was critical disease at hospital admission. The association(s) between clinically relevant, noncollinear variables, and the primary outcome was assessed with uni- and multivariable Logistic regression models. A total of 520 patients were hospitalized of whom 349 (67%) were males with a median age 61 (interquartile range: 50-72). A higher proportion of males presented critically ill when compared to females (30.1% vs. 18.7%, p < .046). Death occurred in 86 (24.6%) males and 27 (15.8%) females (p = .024). In multivariable analysis age (per 10 years more) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.83 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.42-2.35], p < .0001), obesity (AOR: 2.17 [95% CI: 1.10-4.31], p = .026), critical disease at hospital admission (AOR 6.34 [95% CI: 3.50-11.48], p < .0001) were independently associated to higher odds of death whereas gender was not. In conclusion, a higher proportion of males presented critically ill at hospital admission. Age, critical disease at hospital admission, obesity, anemia, D-dimer, estimated glomerular filtration rate, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase predicted death in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Sex Ratio , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
14.
Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this single-centre prospective study was to evaluate the trend of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in HCWs working at the primary referral centre for infectious diseases and bioemergencies (eg, COVID-19) in Northern Italy and investigate the factors associated with seroconversion. METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-nine HCW volunteers were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies three times between 4 March and 27 May 2020 and completed a questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposure, symptoms and personal protective equipment (PPE) training and confidence at each time. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rose from 3/679 to 26/608 (adjusted prevalence: 0.5%, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.7% and 5.4%, 95% CI 3.6 to 7.9, respectively) between the first two time points and then stabilised, in line with the curve of the COVID-19 epidemic in Milan. From the first time point, 61.6% of the HCWs had received training in the use of PPE and 17 (61.5%) of those who proved to be seropositive reported symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Contacts with ill relatives or friends and self-reported symptoms were independently associated with an increased likelihood of seroconversion (p<0.0001 for both), whereas there was no significant association with professional exposure. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the HCWs at our COVID-19 referral hospital was low at the time of the peak of the epidemic. The seroconversions were mainly attributable to extrahospital contacts, probably because the hospital readily adopted effective infection control measures. The relatively high number of asymptomatic seropositive HCWs highlights the need to promptly identify and isolate potentially infectious HCWs.

17.
Crit Care Med ; 49(1): e31-e40, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the frequency of ICU-acquired bloodstream infections in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: The emergency expansion of an ICU from eight general beds to 30 coronavirus disease 2019 beds. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to the ICU of Luigi Sacco Hospital (Milan, Italy) for greater than or equal to 48 hours between February 21, 2020, and April 30, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The frequency of bloodstream infections per 1,000 days of ICU stay was calculated in 89 coronavirus disease 2019 patients, and the cumulative probability of bloodstream infection was estimated using death and ICU discharge as competing events. Sixty patients (67.4%) experienced at least one of the 93 recorded episodes of bloodstream infection, a frequency of 87 per 1,000 days of ICU stay (95% CI, 67-112).The patients who experienced a bloodstream infection had a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score upon ICU admission (9.5; interquartile range, 8-12 vs 8, interquartile range, 5-10; p = 0.042), a longer median ICU stay (15 d; interquartile range, 11-23 vs 8, interquartile range, 5-12; p < 0.001), and more frequently required invasive mechanical ventilation (98.3% vs 82.8%; p = 0.013) than those who did not. The median time from ICU admission to the first bloodstream infection episode was 10 days. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 74 episodes (79.6%), with Enterococcus species being the most prevalent (53 episodes, 55.8%). Thirty-two isolates (27.3%) showed multidrug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Coronavirus disease 2019 seemed to increase the frequency of bloodstream infections (particularly Enterococcus-related bloodstream infection) after ICU admission. This may have been due to enteric involvement in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and/or limitations in controlling the patient-to-patient transmission of infectious agents in extremely challenging circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Sepsis/microbiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(suppl 1):29-36, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-599180

ABSTRACT

We reviewed studies reporting bacterial and fungal co-infections in patients with COVID-19. The majority were retrospective studies with poor quality data biased with short follow-up and selection of patients. Septic shock was reported in 4% to 33.1% of patients. Seventy-one to 100% of patients received antibacterial treatments. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis seems to be an increasingly observed complication in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection as previously reported in patients hospitalized in ICU with severe influenza. High quality prospective studies are urgently needed to verify the incidence of bacterial and fungal infections and their role on the outcome of COVID-19.

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