Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273584, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most important causes of acquired structural epilepsy, post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), however, efficient preventative measures and treatment are still not available to patients. Preclinical studies indicated biperiden, an anticholinergic drug, as a potential drug to modify the epileptogenic process. The main objective of this clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of biperiden as an antiepileptogenic agent in patients that suffered TBI. METHODS: This prospective multicenter (n = 10) interventional study will include 312 adult patients admitted to emergency care units with a diagnosis of moderate or severe TBI. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients will be randomized, using block randomization, to receive double-blind treatment with placebo or biperiden for 10 days. Follow-up will occur at specific time windows up to 2 years. Main outcomes are incidence of PTE after TBI and occurrence of severe adverse events. Other outcomes include exploratory investigation of factors that might have benefits for the treatment or might influence its results, such as genetic background, clinical progression, electroencephalographic abnormalities, health-related quality of life and neuropsychological status. Analyses will be conducted following the safety, intention-to-treat and efficacy concepts. DISCUSSION: We hypothesize that biperiden treatment will be effective to prevent or mitigate the development of post-traumatic epilepsy in TBI patients. Other health measures from this population also may benefit from treatment with biperiden. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04945213. Registered on June 30, 2021.


Subject(s)
Biperiden , Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Biperiden/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 28(3): 353-362, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874443

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: It is generally believed that evidence from low quality of evidence generate inaccurate estimates about treatment effects more often than evidence from high (certainty) quality evidence (CoE). As a result, we would expect that (a) estimates of effects of health interventions initially based on high CoE change less frequently than the effects estimated by lower CoE (b) the estimates of magnitude of effect size differ between high and low CoE. Empirical assessment of these foundational principles of evidence-based medicine has been lacking. METHODS: We reviewed the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 2016 through May 2021 for pairs of original and updated reviews for change in CoE assessments based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method. We assessed the difference in effect sizes between the original versus updated reviews as a function of change in CoE, which we report as a ratio of odds ratio (ROR). We compared ROR generated in the studies in which CoE changed from very low/low (VL/L) to moderate/high (M/H) versus M/H to VL/L. Heterogeneity and inconsistency were assessed using the tau and I2 statistic. We also assessed the change in precision of effect estimates (by calculating the ratio of standard errors) (seR), and the absolute deviation in estimates of treatment effects (aROR). RESULTS: Four hundred and nineteen pairs of reviews were included of which 414 (207 × 2) informed the CoE appraisal and 384 (192 × 2) the assessment of effect size. We found that CoE originally appraised as VL/L had 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-4.12; p = 0.0091] times higher odds to be changed in the future studies than M/H CoE. However, the effect size was not different (p = 1) when CoE changed from VL/L → M/H [ROR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.74-1.39)] compared with M/H → VL/L (ROR = 1.02 [95% CI: 0.44-2.37]). Similar overlap in aROR between the VL/L → M/H versus M/H → VL/L subgroups was observed [median (IQR): 1.12 (1.07-1.57) vs. 1.21 (1.12-2.43)]. We observed large inconsistency across ROR estimates (I2 = 99%). There was larger imprecision in treatment effects when CoE changed from VL/L → M/H (seR = 1.46) than when it changed from M/H → VL/L (seR = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: We found that low-quality evidence changes more often than high CoE. However, the effect size did not systematically differ between the studies with low versus high CoE. The finding that the effect size did not differ between low and high CoE indicate urgent need to refine current EBM critical appraisal methods.


Subject(s)
Systematic Reviews as Topic , Humans
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD015045, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The development of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and poor clinical outcomes are associated with hyperinflammation and a complex dysregulation of the immune response. Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory medicine and is thought to improve disease outcomes in COVID-19 through a wide range of anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Patients and healthcare systems need more and better treatment options for COVID-19 and a thorough understanding of the current body of evidence. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of Colchicine as a treatment option for COVID-19 in comparison to an active comparator, placebo, or standard care alone in any setting, and to maintain the currency of the evidence, using a living systematic review approach. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register (comprising CENTRAL, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and medRxiv), Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded and Emerging Sources Citation Index), and WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease to identify completed and ongoing studies without language restrictions to 21 May 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials evaluating colchicine for the treatment of people with COVID-19, irrespective of disease severity, age, sex, or ethnicity. We excluded studies investigating the prophylactic effects of colchicine for people without severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection but at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool (ROB 2) to assess bias in included studies and GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence for the following prioritised outcome categories considering people with moderate or severe COVID-19: all-cause mortality, worsening and improvement of clinical status, quality of life, adverse events, and serious adverse events and for people with asymptomatic infection or mild disease: all-cause mortality, admission to hospital or death, symptom resolution, duration to symptom resolution, quality of life, adverse events, serious adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We included three RCTs with 11,525 hospitalised participants (8002 male) and one RCT with 4488 (2067 male) non-hospitalised participants. Mean age of people treated in hospital was about 64 years, and was 55 years in the study with non-hospitalised participants. Further, we identified 17 ongoing studies and 11 studies completed or terminated, but without published results. Colchicine plus standard care versus standard care (plus/minus placebo) Treatment of hospitalised people with moderate to severe COVID-19 All-cause mortality: colchicine plus standard care probably results in little to no difference in all-cause mortality up to 28 days compared to standard care alone (risk ratio (RR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.08; 2 RCTs, 11,445 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Worsening of clinical status: colchicine plus standard care probably results in little to no difference in worsening of clinical status assessed as new need for invasive mechanical ventilation or death compared to standard care alone (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.09; 2 RCTs, 10,916 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Improvement of clinical status: colchicine plus standard care probably results in little to no difference in improvement of clinical status, assessed as number of participants discharged alive up to day 28 without clinical deterioration or death compared to standard care alone (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.01; 1 RCT, 11,340 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Quality of life, including fatigue and neurological status: we identified no studies reporting this outcome. Adverse events: the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of colchicine on adverse events compared to placebo (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.78; 1 RCT, 72 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Serious adverse events: the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of colchicine plus standard care on serious adverse events compared to standard care alone (0 events observed in 1 RCT of 105 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Treatment of non-hospitalised people with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection or mild COVID-19 All-cause mortality: the evidence is uncertain about the effect of colchicine on all-cause mortality at 28 days (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.57, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.62; 1 RCT, 4488 participants; low-certainty evidence). Admission to hospital or death within 28 days: colchicine probably slightly reduces the need for hospitalisation or death within 28 days compared to placebo (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.03; 1 RCT, 4488 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Symptom resolution: we identified no studies reporting this outcome. Quality of life, including fatigue and neurological status: we identified no studies reporting this outcome. Adverse events: the evidence is uncertain about the effect of colchicine on adverse events compared to placebo . Results are from one RCT reporting treatment-related events only in 4412 participants (low-certainty evidence). Serious adverse events: colchicine probably slightly reduces serious adverse events (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.00; 1 RCT, 4412 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Colchicine versus another active treatment (e.g. corticosteroids, anti-viral drugs, monoclonal antibodies) No studies evaluated this comparison. Different formulations, doses, or schedules of colchicine No studies assessed this. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current evidence, in people hospitalised with moderate to severe COVID-19 the use of colchicine probably has little to no influence on mortality or clinical progression in comparison to placebo or standard care alone. We do not know whether colchicine increases the risk of (serious) adverse events. We are uncertain about the evidence of the effect of colchicine on all-cause mortality for people with asymptomatic infection or mild disease. However, colchicine probably results in a slight reduction of hospital admissions or deaths within 28 days, and the rate of serious adverse events compared with placebo. None of the studies reported data on quality of life or compared the benefits and harms of colchicine versus other drugs, or different dosages of colchicine. We identified 17 ongoing and 11 completed but not published RCTs, which we expect to incorporate in future versions of this review as their results become available. Editorial note: due to the living approach of this work, we monitor newly published results of RCTs on colchicine on a weekly basis and will update the review when the evidence or our certainty in the evidence changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colchicine , Cause of Death , Colchicine/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14357, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416321

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To identify, systematically evaluate and summarise the best available evidence on the frequency of long COVID-19 (post-acute COVID-19 syndrome), its clinical manifestations, and the criteria used for diagnosis. METHODS: Systematic review conducted with a comprehensive search including formal databases, COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 data sources, grey literature, and manual search. We considered for inclusion clinical trials, observational longitudinal comparative and non-comparative studies, cross-sectional, before-and-after, and case series. We assessed the methodological quality by specific tools based on the study designs. We presented the results as a narrative synthesis regarding the frequency and duration of long COVID-19, signs and symptoms, criteria used for diagnosis, and potential risk factors. RESULTS: We included 25 observational studies with moderate to high methodological quality, considering 5440 participants. The frequency of long COVID-19 ranged from 4.7% to 80%, and the most prevalent signs/symptoms were chest pain (up to 89%), fatigue (up to 65%), dyspnea (up to 61%), and cough and sputum production (up to 59%). Temporal criteria used to define long COVID-19 varied from 3 to 24 weeks after acute phase or hospital discharge. Potentially associated risk factors were old age, female sex, severe clinical status, a high number of comorbidities, hospital admission, and oxygen supplementation at the acute phase. However, limitations related to study designs added uncertainty to this finding. None of the studies assessed the duration of signs/symptoms. CONCLUSION: The frequency of long COVID-19 reached up to 80% over the studies included and occurred between 3 and 24 weeks after acute phase or hospital discharge. Chest pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and cough were the most reported clinical manifestations attributed to the condition. Based on these systematic review findings, there is an urgent need to understand this emerging, complex and challenging medical condition. Proposals for diagnostic criteria and standard terminology are welcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(5): 511-513, May 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1352739

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Numerous systematic reviews on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) treatment have been developed to provide syntheses of the large volume of primary studies. However, the methodological quality of most of these reviews is questionable and the results provided may therefore present bias. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how many systematic reviews on the therapeutic or preventive options for COVID-19 assessed the certainty of the evidence through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. METHODS: We conducted a sensitive search in MEDLINE (via PubMed) and included all systematic reviews that assessed any intervention for COVID-19. The systematic reviews included were examined to identify any planned and/or actual assessment using the GRADE approach (or absence thereof) regarding the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: We included 177 systematic reviews and found that only 37 (21%; 37/177) assessed and reported the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This number reduced to 27 (16.2%; 27/167) when Cochrane reviews (n = 10), in which an evaluation using GRADE is mandatory, were excluded. CONCLUSION: Most of the systematic reviews on interventions relating to COVID-19 omitted assessment of the certainty of the evidence. This is a critical methodological omission that must not be overlooked in further research, so as to improve the impact and usefulness of syntheses relating to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Bias , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 342-352, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115261

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Delays and disruptions in health systems because of the COVID-19 pandemic were identified by a previous systematic review from our group. For improving the knowledge about the pandemic consequences for cancer care, this article aims to identify the effects of mitigation strategies developed to reduce the impact of such delays and disruptions. METHODS: Systematic review with a comprehensive search including formal databases, cancer and COVID-19 data sources, gray literature, and manual search. We considered clinical trials, observational longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies, before-and-after studies, case series, and case studies. The selection, data extraction, and methodological assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed by specific tools. The mitigation strategies identified were described in detail and their effects were summarized narratively. RESULTS: Of 6,692 references reviewed, 28 were deemed eligible, and 9 studies with low to moderate methodological quality were included. Five multiple strategies and four single strategies were reported, and the possible effects of mitigating delays and disruptions in cancer care because of COVID-19 are inconsistent. The only comparative study reported a 48.7% reduction observed in the number of outpatient visits to the hospital accompanied by a small reduction in imaging and an improvement in radiation treatments after the implementation of a multiple organizational strategy. CONCLUSION: The findings emphasize the infrequency of measuring and reporting mitigation strategies that specifically address patients' outcomes and thus a scarcity of high-quality evidence to inform program development. This review reinforces the need of adopting standardized measurement methods to monitor the impact of the mitigation strategies proposed to reduce the effects of delays and disruptions in cancer health care because of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cancer Care Facilities , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Medical Oncology/trends , Neoplasms/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Making , Humans , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Models, Organizational , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Time-to-Treatment
9.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 311-323, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094054

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There has been noteworthy concern about the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health services including the management of cancer. In addition to being considered at higher risk for worse outcomes from COVID-19, people with cancer may also experience disruptions or delays in health services. This systematic review aimed to identify the delays and disruptions to cancer services globally. METHODS: This is a systematic review with a comprehensive search including specific and general databases. We considered any observational longitudinal and cross-sectional study design. The selection, data extraction, and methodological assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed by specific tools. The delays and disruptions identified were categorized, and their frequency was presented. RESULTS: Among the 62 studies identified, none exhibited high methodological quality. The most frequent determinants for disruptions were provider- or system-related, mainly because of the reduction in service availability. The studies identified 38 different categories of delays and disruptions with impact on treatment, diagnosis, or general health service. Delays or disruptions most investigated included reduction in routine activity of cancer services and number of cancer surgeries; delay in radiotherapy; and delay, reschedule, or cancellation of outpatient visits. Interruptions and disruptions largely affected facilities (up to 77.5%), supply chain (up to 79%), and personnel availability (up to 60%). CONCLUSION: The remarkable frequency of delays and disruptions in health care mostly related to the reduction of the COVID-19 burden unintentionally posed a major risk on cancer care worldwide. Strategies can be proposed not only to mitigate the main delays and disruptions but also to standardize their measurement and reporting. As a high number of publications continuously are being published, it is critical to harmonize the upcoming reports and constantly update this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Ambulatory Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Neoplasms/surgery
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 562, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760858

ABSTRACT

A better understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 virus behavior and possible risk factors implicated in poor outcome has become an urgent need. We performed a systematic review in order to investigate a possible association between body weight and prognosis among patients diagnosed with COVID-19. We searched in Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, WHO-Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease, OpenGrey, and Medrxiv. We used the ROBINS-I tool or Cross-Sectional/Prevalence Study Quality tool from AHRQ, to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. Nine studies (two prospective cohorts, four retrospective cohorts and three cross-sectional) were included and assessed the relationship between obesity and COVID-19 prognosis. Risk of bias of the included studies ranged from moderate to critical. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity among them precluded meta-analyses. Most of the included studies showed some degree of association to: (a) higher BMI and worse clinical presentation and (b) obesity and need of hospitalization. The results were inconsistent about the impact of obesity on mortality. Based on limited methodological quality studies, obesity seems to predict poor clinical evolution in patients with COVID-19. Further studies with appropriate prospective design are needed to reduce the uncertainty on this evidence.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Body Mass Index , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
12.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 32(2): 166-196, 2020 06.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646347

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Different therapies are currently used, considered, or proposed for the treatment of COVID-19; for many of those therapies, no appropriate assessment of effectiveness and safety was performed. This document aims to provide scientifically available evidence-based information in a transparent interpretation, to subsidize decisions related to the pharmacological therapy of COVID-19 in Brazil. METHODS: A group of 27 experts and methodologists integrated a task-force formed by professionals from the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB), the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases (Sociedad Brasileira de Infectologia - SBI) and the Brazilian Society of Pulmonology and Tisiology (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT). Rapid systematic reviews, updated on April 28, 2020, were conducted. The assessment of the quality of evidence and the development of recommendations followed the GRADE system. The recommendations were written on May 5, 8, and 13, 2020. RESULTS: Eleven recommendations were issued based on low or very-low level evidence. We do not recommend the routine use of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, corticosteroids, or tocilizumab for the treatment of COVID-19. Prophylactic heparin should be used in hospitalized patients, however, no anticoagulation should be provided for patients without a specific clinical indication. Antibiotics and oseltamivir should only be considered for patients with suspected bacterial or influenza coinfection, respectively. CONCLUSION: So far no pharmacological intervention was proven effective and safe to warrant its use in the routine treatment of COVID-19 patients; therefore such patients should ideally be treated in the context of clinical trials. The recommendations herein provided will be revised continuously aiming to capture newly generated evidence.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
13.
Non-conventional | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-526397

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: Dada a pandemia do COVID-19, identificou-se a necessidade de pesquisar medicamentos que atuem na função pulmonar como possíveis tratamentos para a doença, entre eles os antagonistas de endotelina. Por inibirem os receptores de endotelina (um neuro hormônio de concentração elevada no tecido pulmonar), localizados principalmente nas células do músculo liso vascular pulmonar e nas células endoteliais vasculares pulmonares, estes agentes bloqueiam a vasoconstrição e a proliferação celular local, diminuindo o remodelamento tecidual e a resistência pulmonar e aumentando o débito cardíaco. Desta forma, estes agentes podem representar um alvo terapêutico para a doença. OBJETIVOS: Identificar, avaliar sistematicamente e sumarizar as melhores evidências científicas disponíveis sobre a eficácia e a segurança dos antagonistas do receptor de endotelina para COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática rápida (rapid review methodology). RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 2.051 estudos, dos quais nenhum foi incluído após o processo de seleção. Não foram identificados estudos finalizados ou em andamento que pesquisassem a classe como um possível alvo para o tratamento da COVID-19. CONCLUSÃO: Esta revisão sistemática rápida não identificou estudos que avaliassem os efeitos dos antagonistas do receptor de endotelina para o tratamento da COVID-19. Deste modo, até que resultados de estudos clínicos com esta finalidade estejam disponíveis, não é possível estimar a eficácia e a segurança desses medicamentos no tratamento de pacientes com COVID-19, tampouco recomendar seu uso rotineiro para esta situação.(AU)

14.
Non-conventional | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-525791

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: A COVID-19 é uma pandemia de risco muito alto a nível global pela OMS. Até o momento não existem terapias específicas, embora diferentes tratamentos estejam em investigação. Mais recentemente, tem havido crescente interesse no uso da nitazoxanida no tratamento de COVID-19, dada sua atividade antiviral de amplo espectro. OBJETIVOS: Identificar, avaliar sistematicamente e sumarizar as melhores evidências científicas disponíveis sobre a eficácia e a segurança da nitazoxanida para COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática rápida (rapid review methodology). RESULTADOS: Após o processo de seleção, foram avaliados cinco estudos clínicos em andamento. CONCLUSÃO: Cinco estudos com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia e segurança da nitazoxanida no tratamento de COVID-19 estão em andamento. Devido à ausência de evidência sobre o uso deste medicamento para o tratamento de infecções por coronavírus que causem infecções respiratórias, não é possível recomendar seu uso como terapia para COVID-19.(AU)

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL