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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2583, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839524

ABSTRACT

Data on convalescent plasma (CP) treatment in COVID-19 outpatients are scarce. We aimed to assess whether CP administered during the first week of symptoms reduced the disease progression or risk of hospitalization of outpatients. Two multicenter, double-blind randomized trials (NCT04621123, NCT04589949) were merged with data pooling starting when <20% of recruitment target was achieved. A Bayesian-adaptive individual patient data meta-analysis was implemented. Outpatients aged ≥50 years and symptomatic for ≤7days were included. The intervention consisted of 200-300mL of CP with a predefined minimum level of antibodies. Primary endpoints were a 5-point disease severity scale and a composite of hospitalization or death by 28 days. Amongst the 797 patients included, 390 received CP and 392 placebo; they had a median age of 58 years, 1 comorbidity, 5 days symptoms and 93% had negative IgG antibody-test. Seventy-four patients were hospitalized, 6 required mechanical ventilation and 3 died. The odds ratio (OR) of CP for improved disease severity scale was 0.936 (credible interval (CI) 0.667-1.311); OR for hospitalization or death was 0.919 (CI 0.592-1.416). CP effect on hospital admission or death was largest in patients with ≤5 days of symptoms (OR 0.658, 95%CI 0.394-1.085). CP did not decrease the time to full symptom resolution. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04621123 and NCT04589949. REGISTRATION: NCT04621123 and NCT04589949 on https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Outpatients , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(2): 232-239, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838372

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the effect of interferon-α2 auto-antibodies (IFN-α2 Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α2 Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. METHODS: Sera from healthy controls, cases of COVID-19, and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-α2 Abs by ELISA and a pseudo virus-based neutralization assay. The effects of disease severity, sex, and age on the risk of having neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs were determined. Longitudinal analyses were performed to determine association between IFN-α2 Abs and survival and viral load and whether serum IFN-α2 Abs appeared after convalescent plasma transfusion. RESULTS: IFN-α2 neutralizing sera were found only in COVID-19 patients, with proportions increasing with disease severity and age. In the acute stage of COVID-19, all sera from patients with ELISA-detected IFN-α2 Abs (13/164, 7.9%) neutralized levels of IFN-α2 exceeding physiological concentrations found in human plasma and this was associated with delayed viral clearance. Convalescent plasma donors that were anti-IFN-α2 ELISA positive (3/118, 2.5%) did not neutralize the same levels of IFN-α2. Neutralizing serum IFN-α2 Abs were associated with delayed viral clearance from the respiratory tract. CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2 Abs were detected by ELISA and neutralization assay in COVID-19 patients, but not in ICU patients with other respiratory illnesses. The presence of neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs in critically ill COVID-19 is associated with delayed viral clearance. IFN-α2 Abs in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors were not neutralizing in the conditions tested.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Interferon alpha-2/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335179

ABSTRACT

Background In the general population, illness after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant is less severe compared with previous variants. Data on the disease burden of Omicron in immunocompromised patients are lacking. We investigated the clinical characteristics and outcome of a cohort of immunocompromised patients with COVID-19 caused by Omicron. Methods Solid organ transplant recipients, patients on anti-CD20 therapy, and allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients on immunosuppressive therapy infected with the Omicron variant, were included. Patients were contacted regularly until symptom resolution. Clinical characteristics of consenting patients were collected through their electronic patient files. To identify possible risk factors for hospitalization, a univariate logistic analysis was performed. Results A total of 114 consecutive immunocompromised patients were enrolled. Eighty-nine percent had previously received three mRNA vaccinations. While only one patient died, 23 (20%) required hospital admission for a median of 11 days. A low SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody response (<300 BAU/mL) at diagnosis, higher age, being a lung transplant recipient, more comorbidities and a higher frailty were associated with hospital admission (all p<0.01). At the end of follow-up, 25% had still not fully recovered. Of the 23 hospitalized patients, 70% had a negative and 92% a low IgG (<300 BAU/mL) antibody response at admission. Sotrovimab was administered to 17 of them, of which one died. Conclusions While the mortality in immunocompromised patients infected with Omicron was low, hospital admission was frequent and the duration of symptoms often prolonged. Besides vaccination, other interventions are needed to limit the morbidity from COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients. Summary COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients is unknown for the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. This prospective registry, demonstrated low COVID-19-associated mortality in these vulnerable patients. However, morbidity remained substantial. Other interventions to abate COVID-19 severity are needed.

4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic increases healthcare worker (HCW) absenteeism. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine may provide non-specific protection against respiratory infections through enhancement of trained immunity. We investigated the impact of BCG vaccination on HCW absenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: HCWs exposed to COVID-19 patients in nine Dutch hospitals were randomized to BCG vaccine or placebo in a 1:1 ratio, and followed for one year using a mobile phone application. The primary endpoint was the self-reported number of days of unplanned absenteeism for any reason. Secondary endpoints included documented COVID-19, acute respiratory symptoms or fever. This was an investigator-funded study, registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03987919). RESULTS: In March/April 2020, 1511 HCWs were enrolled. The median duration of follow-up was 357 person-days (IQR, 351 to 361). Unplanned absenteeism for any reason was observed in 2.8% of planned working days in the BCG group and 2.7% in the placebo group (adjusted relative risk 0.94, 95% credible interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.15). Cumulative incidences of documented COVID-19 were 14.2% in the BCG and 15.2% in the placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.94, 95%CI: 0.72 to 1.24). First episodes of self-reported acute respiratory symptoms or fever occurred in 490 (66.2%) and 443 (60.2%) participants, respectively (aHR: 1.13, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.28). Thirty-one serious adverse events were reported (13 after BCG, 18 after placebo), none considered related to study medication. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, BCG-vaccination of HCW exposed to COVID-19 patients did not reduce unplanned absenteeism nor documented COVID-19.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332282

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccines can be less immunogenic in people living with HIV (PLWH), but for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations this is unknown. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort study to examine the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines in adult PLWH, without prior COVID-19, compared to HIV-negative controls. The primary endpoint was the anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG response after mRNA vaccination. Secondary endpoints included the serological response after vector vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response and reactogenicity. Between February-September 2021, 1154 PLWH (median age 53 [IQR 44-60], 86% male) and 440 controls (median age 43 [IQR 33-53], 29% male) were included. 884 PLWH received BNT162b2, 100 mRNA-1273, 150 ChAdOx1-S, and 20 Ad26.COV2.S. 99% were on antiretroviral therapy, 98% virally suppressed, and the median CD4+T-cell count was 710 cells/µL [IQR 520-913]. 247 controls received mRNA-1273, 94 BNT162b2, 26 ChAdOx1-S and 73 Ad26.COV2.S. After mRNA vaccination, geometric mean concentration was 1418 BAU/mL in PLWH (95%CI 1322-1523), and after adjustment for age, sex, and vaccine type, HIV-status remained associated with a decreased response (0.607, 95%CI 0.508-0.725). In PLWH vaccinated with mRNA-based vaccines, higher antibody responses were predicted by CD4+T-cell counts 250-500 cells/µL (2.845, 95%CI 1.876-4.314) or >500 cells/µL (2.936, 95%CI 1.961-4.394), whilst a viral load >50 copies/mL was associated with a reduced response (0.454, 95%CI 0.286-0.720). Increased IFN-γ, CD4+, and CD8+T-cell responses were observed after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in ELISpot and activation induced marker assays, comparable to controls. Reactogenicity was generally mild without vaccine-related SAE. Conclusion After vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were reduced in PLWH. To reach and maintain the same serological responses and vaccine efficacy as HIV-negative controls, additional vaccinations are probably required.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1271-1274, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706426

ABSTRACT

Twenty-five B-cell-depleted patients (24 following anti-CD19/20 therapy) diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 had been symptomatic for a median of 26 days but remained antibody negative. All were treated with convalescent plasma with high neutralizing antibody titers. Twenty-one (84%) recovered, indicating the potential therapeutic effects of this therapy in this particular population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 915, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703249

ABSTRACT

Quantitative or qualitative differences in immunity may drive clinical severity in COVID-19. Although longitudinal studies to record the course of immunological changes are ample, they do not necessarily predict clinical progression at the time of hospital admission. Here we show, by a machine learning approach using serum pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral cytokine and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurements as input data, that COVID-19 patients cluster into three distinct immune phenotype groups. These immune-types, determined by unsupervised hierarchical clustering that is agnostic to severity, predict clinical course. The identified immune-types do not associate with disease duration at hospital admittance, but rather reflect variations in the nature and kinetics of individual patient's immune response. Thus, our work provides an immune-type based scheme to stratify COVID-19 patients at hospital admittance into high and low risk clinical categories with distinct cytokine and antibody profiles that may guide personalized therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunophenotyping/methods , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319564

ABSTRACT

Purpose:  To study the effect of Interferon-α auto-antibodies (IFN-α Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. Methods: : Sera from cases of COVID-19 and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-αAbs by ELISA and bioassay. IFN-α Abslevels were compared between critically, severely and moderately ill groups in both acute and convalescent stages. Longitudinal analyses were performed to determine whether IFN-α Abs levels change after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: : Critically ill COVID-19 caseshad significantly higher IFN-α Abs detection rate and levels compared tonon-COVID-19 controls.Neutralizing IFN-α Abs levels were found in 1 out of 118plasma donors.Plasma from 2 positive donors was administered to 5 patients, with no subsequent elevation of IFN-α Abs levels in the recipients. Neutralizing levels of IFN-α Abswere associated with delayed viral clearance from the respiratory tract. Conclusions: : IFN-α Abs can be detected by ELISA in critical, severe, moderate and mild COVID-19 cases in both the acute and convalescent stages of disease. The presence of neutralizing IFN-α Abs in critically ill COVID-19 is associated with delayed viral clearance. Levels of IFN-α Abs inCOVID-19 convalescent plasma donorsare likely too low to be clinically relevant to the recipients.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 521-524, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684544

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 lockdown, the in-hospital number of HIV indicator conditions decreased disproportionally compared with other non-COVID-19 diseases, which was accompanied by reduced HIV testing rates, number and proportion of positive HIV tests, and new HIV referrals, with more late presentation after lockdown cessation, indicating a significantly impacted HIV care continuum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Communicable Disease Control , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Sci Immunol ; 7(69): eabo2202, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673343

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant is spreading rapidly, even in vaccinated individuals, raising concerns about immune escape. Here, we studied neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses targeting SARS-CoV-2 D614G [wild type (WT)] and the Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants of concern in a cohort of 60 health care workers after immunization with ChAdOx-1 S, Ad26.COV2.S, mRNA-1273, or BNT162b2. High binding antibody levels against WT SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) were detected 28 days after vaccination with both mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2), which substantially decreased after 6 months. In contrast, antibody levels were lower after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination but did not wane. Neutralization assays showed consistent cross-neutralization of the Beta and Delta variants, but neutralization of Omicron was significantly lower or absent. BNT162b2 booster vaccination after either two mRNA-1273 immunizations or Ad26.COV2 priming partially restored neutralization of the Omicron variant, but responses were still up to 17-fold decreased compared with WT. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detected up to 6 months after all vaccination regimens, with more consistent detection of specific CD4+ than CD8+ T cells. No significant differences were detected between WT- and variant-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell responses, including Omicron, indicating minimal escape at the T cell level. This study shows that vaccinated individuals retain T cell immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, potentially balancing the lack of neutralizing antibodies in preventing or limiting severe COVID-19. Booster vaccinations are needed to further restore Omicron cross-neutralization by antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(5): 667-671, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two years into the pandemic, convincing evidence in favour of convalescent plasma (ConvP) as a treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still lacking. This contrasts sharply with the efficacy of potent virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. However, resistance of the Omicron variant against almost all licensed monoclonals turns back the clock, and we can expect that ConvP will regain interest. Indeed, the efficacy of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies supports the premise that ConvP will work when used at the right time, at the right dose, and containing antibodies with the right affinity. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review available evidence on dosing of ConvP for COVID-19 and provide guidance for future trials or patient care. SOURCES: Because no dose-finding human trials were ever performed, we reviewed COVID-19 animal model studies and human trials that provide (in)direct data on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ConvP. We also discuss the identification of appropriate ConvP donors in the context of emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants. CONTENT: Compared with dosing in animal studies, almost all human trials used substantially lower doses. Identifying donors with sufficiently high virus-neutralizing antibody titres is challenging, in particular when new variants escape immunity induced by ancestral variants. Ways to avoid underdosing are (a) use of ConvP from two different donors, (b) use only ConvP known to neutralize the variant with which the patient is infected, (c) use two ConvP units with a neutralizing antibody titre ≥1/1250 (when only one plasma unit is available, neutralizing antibody titre of ≥1/2500 is recommended), (d) use an antibody test that correlates well with virus neutralization (use of international units per ml (IU/ml) for virus neutralization is strongly encouraged), and (e) use of donors shortly after a third mRNA vaccination may simplify the donor selection process. IMPLICATIONS: In future trials on ConvP for COVID-19, more stringent donor selection criteria and/or higher volume transfusions should be used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
12.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(2): 232-239, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669888

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the effect of interferon-α2 auto-antibodies (IFN-α2 Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α2 Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. METHODS: Sera from healthy controls, cases of COVID-19, and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-α2 Abs by ELISA and a pseudo virus-based neutralization assay. The effects of disease severity, sex, and age on the risk of having neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs were determined. Longitudinal analyses were performed to determine association between IFN-α2 Abs and survival and viral load and whether serum IFN-α2 Abs appeared after convalescent plasma transfusion. RESULTS: IFN-α2 neutralizing sera were found only in COVID-19 patients, with proportions increasing with disease severity and age. In the acute stage of COVID-19, all sera from patients with ELISA-detected IFN-α2 Abs (13/164, 7.9%) neutralized levels of IFN-α2 exceeding physiological concentrations found in human plasma and this was associated with delayed viral clearance. Convalescent plasma donors that were anti-IFN-α2 ELISA positive (3/118, 2.5%) did not neutralize the same levels of IFN-α2. Neutralizing serum IFN-α2 Abs were associated with delayed viral clearance from the respiratory tract. CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2 Abs were detected by ELISA and neutralization assay in COVID-19 patients, but not in ICU patients with other respiratory illnesses. The presence of neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs in critically ill COVID-19 is associated with delayed viral clearance. IFN-α2 Abs in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors were not neutralizing in the conditions tested.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Interferon alpha-2/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2147375, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648976

ABSTRACT

Importance: Identifying which patients with COVID-19 are likely to benefit from COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) treatment may have a large public health impact. Objective: To develop an index for predicting the expected relative treatment benefit from CCP compared with treatment without CCP for patients hospitalized for COVID-19 using patients' baseline characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study used data from the COMPILE study, ie, a meta-analysis of pooled individual patient data from 8 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating CCP vs control in adults hospitalized for COVID-19 who were not receiving mechanical ventilation at randomization. A combination of baseline characteristics, termed the treatment benefit index (TBI), was developed based on 2287 patients in COMPILE using a proportional odds model, with baseline characteristics selected via cross-validation. The TBI was externally validated on 4 external data sets: the Expanded Access Program (1896 participants), a study conducted under Emergency Use Authorization (210 participants), and 2 RCTs (with 80 and 309 participants). Exposure: Receipt of CCP. Main Outcomes and Measures: World Health Organization (WHO) 11-point ordinal COVID-19 clinical status scale and 2 derivatives of it (ie, WHO score of 7-10, indicating mechanical ventilation to death, and WHO score of 10, indicating death) at day 14 and day 28 after randomization. Day 14 WHO 11-point ordinal scale was used as the primary outcome to develop the TBI. Results: A total of 2287 patients were included in the derivation cohort, with a mean (SD) age of 60.3 (15.2) years and 815 (35.6%) women. The TBI provided a continuous gradation of benefit, and, for clinical utility, it was operationalized into groups of expected large clinical benefit (B1; 629 participants in the derivation cohort [27.5%]), moderate benefit (B2; 953 [41.7%]), and potential harm or no benefit (B3; 705 [30.8%]). Patients with preexisting conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases), with blood type A or AB, and at an early COVID-19 stage (low baseline WHO scores) were expected to benefit most, while those without preexisting conditions and at more advanced stages of COVID-19 could potentially be harmed. In the derivation cohort, odds ratios for worse outcome, where smaller odds ratios indicate larger benefit from CCP, were 0.69 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.48-1.06) for B1, 0.82 (95% CrI, 0.61-1.11) for B2, and 1.58 (95% CrI, 1.14-2.17) for B3. Testing on 4 external datasets supported the validation of the derived TBIs. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that the CCP TBI is a simple tool that can quantify the relative benefit from CCP treatment for an individual patient hospitalized with COVID-19 that can be used to guide treatment recommendations. The TBI precision medicine approach could be especially helpful in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Patient Selection , Plasma , Therapeutic Index , Aged , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2147331, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648384

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is a potentially beneficial treatment for COVID-19 that requires rigorous testing. Objective: To compile individual patient data from randomized clinical trials of CCP and to monitor the data until completion or until accumulated evidence enables reliable conclusions regarding the clinical outcomes associated with CCP. Data Sources: From May to August 2020, a systematic search was performed for trials of CCP in the literature, clinical trial registry sites, and medRxiv. Domain experts at local, national, and international organizations were consulted regularly. Study Selection: Eligible trials enrolled hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19, not receiving mechanical ventilation, and randomized them to CCP or control. The administered CCP was required to have measurable antibodies assessed locally. Data Extraction and Synthesis: A minimal data set was submitted regularly via a secure portal, analyzed using a prespecified bayesian statistical plan, and reviewed frequently by a collective data and safety monitoring board. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prespecified coprimary end points-the World Health Organization (WHO) 11-point ordinal scale analyzed using a proportional odds model and a binary indicator of WHO score of 7 or higher capturing the most severe outcomes including mechanical ventilation through death and analyzed using a logistic model-were assessed clinically at 14 days after randomization. Results: Eight international trials collectively enrolled 2369 participants (1138 randomized to control and 1231 randomized to CCP). A total of 2341 participants (median [IQR] age, 60 [50-72] years; 845 women [35.7%]) had primary outcome data as of April 2021. The median (IQR) of the ordinal WHO scale was 3 (3-6); the cumulative OR was 0.94 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.74-1.19; posterior probability of OR <1 of 71%). A total of 352 patients (15%) had WHO score greater than or equal to 7; the OR was 0.94 (95% CrI, 0.69-1.30; posterior probability of OR <1 of 65%). Adjusted for baseline covariates, the ORs for mortality were 0.88 at day 14 (95% CrI, 0.61-1.26; posterior probability of OR <1 of 77%) and 0.85 at day 28 (95% CrI, 0.62-1.18; posterior probability of OR <1 of 84%). Heterogeneity of treatment effect sizes was observed across an array of baseline characteristics. Conclusions and Relevance: This meta-analysis found no association of CCP with better clinical outcomes for the typical patient. These findings suggest that real-time individual patient data pooling and meta-analysis during a pandemic are feasible, offering a model for future research and providing a rich data resource.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Patient Selection , Plasma , Aged , Bayes Theorem , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551452

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406813

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1271-1274, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320296

ABSTRACT

Twenty-five B-cell-depleted patients (24 following anti-CD19/20 therapy) diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 had been symptomatic for a median of 26 days but remained antibody negative. All were treated with convalescent plasma with high neutralizing antibody titers. Twenty-one (84%) recovered, indicating the potential therapeutic effects of this therapy in this particular population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(8): 819-834, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279405

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is increasingly reported in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Diagnosis and management of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) are challenging and our aim was to develop practical guidance. METHODS: A group of 28 international experts reviewed current insights in the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of CAPA and developed recommendations using GRADE methodology. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAPA varied between 0 and 33%, which may be partly due to variable case definitions, but likely represents true variation. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) remain the cornerstone of CAPA diagnosis, allowing for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and collection of the best validated specimen for Aspergillus diagnostics. Most patients diagnosed with CAPA lack traditional host factors, but pre-existing structural lung disease and immunomodulating therapy may predispose to CAPA risk. Computed tomography seems to be of limited value to rule CAPA in or out, and serum biomarkers are negative in 85% of patients. As the mortality of CAPA is around 50%, antifungal therapy is recommended for BAL positive patients, but the decision to treat depends on the patients' clinical condition and the institutional incidence of CAPA. We recommend against routinely stopping concomitant corticosteroid or IL-6 blocking therapy in CAPA patients. CONCLUSION: CAPA is a complex disease involving a continuum of respiratory colonization, tissue invasion and angioinvasive disease. Knowledge gaps including true epidemiology, optimal diagnostic work-up, management strategies and role of host-directed therapy require further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259514

ABSTRACT

Several reports have been published on Aspergillus findings in COVID-19 patients leading to a proposition of new disease entity COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis. This scoping review is designed at clarifying the concepts on how the findings of Aspergillus spp. in COVID-19 patients were interpreted. We searched Medline to identify the studies on Aspergillus spp. findings in COVID-19 patients. Included were observational studies containing the following information: explicit mention of the total number of the study population, study period, reason for obtaining respiratory samples, case definition, and clinical outcomes. Excluded were case series, case reports and reviews. Identified were 123 publications, and 8 observational studies were included. From the included studies the following issues were identified. The proportion of immunocompromised patients considered as host factors varied from 0 to 17%. Most of the studies did not mention radiographic findings explicitly. Respiratory samples were mostly obtained to investigate clinical deterioration. Aspergillus culture, antigen or PCR testing on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were performed in between 23.3% and 66.3% of the study population. Two studies performed periodic samples of BAL. Galactomannan index (GI) positivity in BAL was between 10% and 28%. GI in blood was found in 0.9% to 6.7% of the available samples. The prevalence of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis ranged from 2.7% to 27.7%. Studies compared the mortality between defined cases and non-cases, and all showed increased mortality in cases. No studies showed that antifungal treatment reduced mortality. Concluding, this review showed how studies defined the clinical entity COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis where positive Aspergillus test in the respiratory sample was the main driver for the diagnosis. There were many differences between studies in terms of test algorithm and Aspergillus test used that largely determined the prevalence. Whether antifungal therapy, either as prophylaxis, pre-emptive or targeted therapy will lead to better outcomes of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis patients is still need to be answered.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3189, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246368

ABSTRACT

In a randomized clinical trial of 86 hospitalized COVID-19 patients comparing standard care to treatment with 300mL convalescent plasma containing high titers of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, no overall clinical benefit was observed. Using a comprehensive translational approach, we unravel the virological and immunological responses following treatment to disentangle which COVID-19 patients may benefit and should be the focus of future studies. Convalescent plasma is safe, does not improve survival, has no effect on the disease course, nor does plasma enhance viral clearance in the respiratory tract, influence SARS-CoV-2 antibody development or serum proinflammatory cytokines levels. Here, we show that the vast majority of patients already had potent neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at hospital admission and with comparable titers to carefully selected plasma donors. This resulted in the decision to terminate the trial prematurely. Treatment with convalescent plasma should be studied early in the disease course or at least preceding autologous humoral response development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome
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