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J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(2)2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625008


BACKGROUND: Critically ill COVID-19 patients have proven to be at risk for developing invasive fungal infections. However, the incidence and impact of possible/probable COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in severe COVID-19 patients varies between cohorts. We aimed to assess the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcome of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a regional cohort of COVID-19 intensive care patients. METHODS: We performed a regional, multicentre, retrospective cohort study in the intensive care units (ICUs) in North Brabant, The Netherlands. We included adult patients with rt-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19), requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Demographics, clinical course, biomarker value, and treatment outcomes were compared between the groups with possible/probable CAPA from the main study centre and the regional centres, and without signs of CAPA from the main study centre as controls. The primary aim was to assess the regional impact of possible/probable CAPA in COVID-19 ICU patients, measured as all-cause mortality at 30 days after ICU admission. Secondary outcomes were risk factors for developing CAPA, based on underlying host factors and to identify the value of the mycological arguments for the diagnosing of CAPA. RESULTS: Between 1 March and 30 April 2020, we included 123 patients with severe COVID-19: 29 patients (30.9%) in the main ICU with possible/probable CAPA, and 65 (69.1%) with no signs of CAPA; 29 patients in the regional ICUs with signs of CAPA. Patients' characteristics and risk factors did not differ for CAPA and non-CAPA patients. Patients with COPD and/or chronic steroid medication developed CAPA more frequently, although this was not statistically significant. CAPA patients were admitted to the ICU earlier, had lower PF-ratios, and more often required renal replacement therapy. All-cause 30-day mortality was significantly higher in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with possible/probable CAPA 39.7% (23/58) compared to patients without evidence for CAPA 16.9% (11/65) (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.4-7.4] p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The high incidence of possible and probable CAPA in critically ill COVID-19 patients is alarming. The increase in 30-day mortality in CAPA highlights the need for active surveillance and management strategies in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Euro Surveill ; 26(23)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266639


We describe four secondary fungal infections caused by Mucorales species in COVID-19 patients. Three COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) occurred in ICU, one outside ICU. All were men aged > 50 years, three died. Clinical presentations included pulmonary, rhino-orbital cerebral and disseminated infection. Infections occurred in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. CAM is an emerging disease and our observations underscore the need to be aware of invasive mucormycosis, including in COVID-19 patients without (poorly controlled) diabetes mellitus and outside ICU.

COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2