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1.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(3): 266-270, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856279

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 may trigger a delayed hyper-inflammatory illness in children called paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS). A similar syndrome is increasingly recognised in adults termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) and may present acutely to medical or surgical specialties with severe symptoms, such as acute abdominal pain or cardiogenic shock. No national guidelines exist in the UK for the management of MIS-A and there is limited evidence to guide treatment plans. We undertook a national Delphi process to elicit opinions from experts in hyperinflammation about the diagnosis and management of MIS-A with the dual aim of improving recognition and producing a management guideline. Colleagues in paediatrics successfully initiated a national consensus management document that facilitated regional multidisciplinary referral and follow-up pathways for children with PIMS-TS, and we propose a similar system be developed for adult patients across the UK. This would facilitate better recognition and treatment of MIS-A across the multiple specialties to which it may present as well as enable follow-up with specialty services post-discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aftercare , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , United Kingdom
2.
Pediatr Radiol ; 52(6): 1038-1047, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies on pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS) have described abdominal findings as part of multisystem involvement, with limited descriptions of abdominal imaging findings specific to PIMS-TS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a detailed evaluation of abdominal imaging findings in children with PIMS-TS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study of children admitted to our institution between April 2020 and January 2021 who fulfilled Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health criteria for PIMS-TS and who had cross-sectional abdominal imaging. We studied clinical data, abdominal imaging, laboratory markers, echocardiography findings, treatment and outcomes for these children. We also reviewed the literature on similar studies. RESULTS: During the study period, 60 PIMS-TS cases were admitted, of whom 23 required abdominal imaging. Most (74%) were from a Black, Asian or minority ethnic background and they had an average age of 7 years (range 2-14 years). All children had fever and gastrointestinal symptoms on presentation with elevated C-reactive protein, D-dimer and fibrinogen. Most had lymphopenia, raised ferritin and hypoalbuminemia, with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 immunoglobulin G antibodies in 65%. Free fluid (78%), right iliac fossa mesenteric inflammation (52%), and significantly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes (52%) were the most common imaging findings. Appendiceal inflammation (30%) and abnormal distal ileum and cecum/ascending colon wall thickening (35%) were also common. All children responded well to medical management alone, with no mortality. CONCLUSION: In addition to free fluid, prominent lymphadenopathy, and inflammatory changes in the right iliac fossa, we found abnormal long-segment ileal thickening and appendicitis to be frequent findings. Recognition of appendiceal involvement as a component of the PIMS-TS spectrum should help clinicians avoid unnecessary surgical intervention as part of a multidisciplinary team approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
3.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 66, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497690

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a continuous and robust impact on world health. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating physical, mental and fiscal impact on the millions of people living with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In addition to older age, people living with CVD, stroke, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension are at a particularly greater risk for severe forms of COVID-19 and its consequences. Meta-analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and thrombotic complications have been observed as both the most prevalent and most dangerous co-morbidities in COVID-19 patients. And despite the nearly incalculable physical, mental, emotional, and economic toll of this pandemic, forthcoming public health figures continue to place cardiovascular disease as the number one cause of death across the globe in the year 2020. The world simply cannot wait for the next pandemic to invest in NCDs. Social determinants of health cannot be addressed only through the healthcare system, but a more holistic multisectoral approach with at its basis the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is needed to truly address social and economic inequalities and build more resilient systems. Yet there is reason for hope: the 2019 UN Political Declaration on UHC provides a strong framework for building more resilient health systems, with explicit calls for investment in NCDs and references to fiscal policies that put such investment firmly within reach. By further cementing the importance of addressing circulatory health in a future Framework Convention on Emergency Preparedness, WHO Member States can take concrete steps towards a pandemic-free future. As the chief representatives of the global circulatory health community and patients, the Global Coalition for Circulatory Health calls for increased support for the healthcare workforce, global vaccine equity, embracing new models of care and digital health solutions, as well as fiscal policies on unhealthy commodities to support these investments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Aged , Global Health , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
5.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-905383

ABSTRACT

The novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whilst most children and young people develop mild symptoms, recent reports suggest a novel paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). Case definition and classification are preliminary, treatment is empiric and disease-associated outcomes are unclear. Here, we report 29 patients with PIMS-TS who were diagnosed, admitted and treated in the English North West between March and June 2020. Consistent with patterns observed internationally, cases peaked approximately 4 weeks after the initial surge of COVID-19-like symptoms in the UK population. Clinical symptoms included fever (100%), skin rashes (72%), cardiovascular involvement (86%), conjunctivitis (62%) and respiratory involvement (21%). Some patients had clinical features partially resembling Kawasaki disease (KD), toxic shock syndrome and cytokine storm syndrome. Male gender (69%), black, Asian and other minority ethnicities (BAME, 59%) were over-represented. Immune modulating treatment was used in all, including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), corticosteroids and cytokine blockers. Notably, 32% of patients treated with IVIG alone went into remission. The rest required additional treatment, usually corticosteroids, with the exception of two patients who were treated with TNF inhibition and IL-1 blockade, respectively. Another patient received IL-1 inhibition as primary therapy, with associated rapid and sustained remission. Randomized and prospective studies are needed to investigate efficacy and safety of treatment, especially as resources of IVIG may be depleted secondary to high demand during future waves of COVID-19.

6.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 9(10):3293, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-855472

ABSTRACT

The novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whilst most children and young people develop mild symptoms, recent reports suggest a novel paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). Case definition and classification are preliminary, treatment is empiric and disease-associated outcomes are unclear. Here, we report 29 patients with PIMS-TS who were diagnosed, admitted and treated in the English North West between March and June 2020. Consistent with patterns observed internationally, cases peaked approximately 4 weeks after the initial surge of COVID-19-like symptoms in the UK population. Clinical symptoms included fever (100%), skin rashes (72%), cardiovascular involvement (86%), conjunctivitis (62%) and respiratory involvement (21%). Some patients had clinical features partially resembling Kawasaki disease (KD), toxic shock syndrome and cytokine storm syndrome. Male gender (69%), black, Asian and other minority ethnicities (BAME, 59%) were over-represented. Immune modulating treatment was used in all, including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), corticosteroids and cytokine blockers. Notably, 32% of patients treated with IVIG alone went into remission. The rest required additional treatment, usually corticosteroids, with the exception of two patients who were treated with TNF inhibition and IL-1 blockade, respectively. Another patient received IL-1 inhibition as primary therapy, with associated rapid and sustained remission. Randomized and prospective studies are needed to investigate efficacy and safety of treatment, especially as resources of IVIG may be depleted secondary to high demand during future waves of COVID-19.

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