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1.
Infection ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943485

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This multicenter observational study was done to evaluate risk factors related to the development of BSI in patients admitted to ICU for COVID-19. METHODS: All patients with COVID-19 admitted in two COVID-19 dedicated ICUs in two different hospital between 02-2020 and 02-2021 were recruited. RESULT: 537 patients were included of whom 265 (49.3%) experienced at least one BSI. Patients who developed bacteremia had a higher SOFA score [10 (8-12) vs 9 (7-10), p < 0.001], had been intubated more frequently [95.8% vs 75%, p < 0.001] and for a median longer time [16 days (9-25) vs 8 days (5-14), p < 0.001]. Patients with BSI had a median longer ICU stay [18 days (12-31.5) vs 9 days (5-15), p < 0.001] and higher mortality [54% vs 42.3%, p < 0.001] than those who did not develop it. Development of BSI resulted in a higher SOFA score [aHR 1.08 (95% CI 1.03-1.12)] and a higher Charlson score [csAHR 1.15 (95% CI 1.05-1.25)]. CONCLUSION: A high SOFA score and a high Charlson score resulted associated with BSI's development. Conversely, immunosuppressive therapy like steroids and tocilizumab, has no role in increasing the risk of bacteremia.

2.
Microorganisms ; 10(5)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855707

ABSTRACT

Previous studies assessing the antibody response (AbR) to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are limited by short follow-up, hampering the analysis of AbR kinetics. We present the ORCHESTRA SOT recipients cohort assessed for AbR at first dose (t0), second dose (t1), and within 3 ± 1 month (t2) after the first dose. We analyzed 1062 SOT patients (kidney, 63.7%; liver, 17.4%; heart, 16.7%; and lung, 2.5%) and 5045 health care workers (HCWs). The AbR rates in the SOTs and HCWs were 52.3% and 99.4%. The antibody levels were significantly higher in the HCWs than in the SOTs (p < 0.001). The kinetics showed an increase (p < 0.001) in antibody levels up to 76 days and a non-significant decrease after 118 days in the SOT recipients versus a decrease up to 76 days (p = 0.02) and a less pronounced decrease between 76 and 118 days (p = 0.04) in the HCWs. Upon multivariable analysis, liver transplant, ≥3 years from SOT, mRNA-1273, azathioprine, and longer time from t0 were associated with a positive AbR at t2. Older age, other comorbidities, mycophenolate, steroids, and impaired graft function were associated with lower AbR probability. Our results may be useful to optimize strategies of immune monitoring after COVID-19 vaccination and indications regarding timing for booster dosages calibrated on SOT patients' characteristics.

3.
Infection ; 50(5): 1243-1253, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to build a predictive model able to stratify the risk of bacterial co-infection at hospitalization in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter observational study of adult patients hospitalized from February to December 2020 with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. Endpoint was microbiologically documented bacterial co-infection diagnosed within 72 h from hospitalization. The cohort was randomly split into derivation and validation cohort. To investigate risk factors for co-infection univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Predictive risk score was obtained assigning a point value corresponding to ß-coefficients to the variables in the multivariable model. ROC analysis in the validation cohort was used to estimate prediction accuracy. RESULTS: Overall, 1733 patients were analyzed: 61.4% males, median age 69 years (IQR 57-80), median Charlson 3 (IQR 2-6). Co-infection was diagnosed in 110 (6.3%) patients. Empirical antibiotics were started in 64.2 and 59.5% of patients with and without co-infection (p = 0.35). At multivariable analysis in the derivation cohort: WBC ≥ 7.7/mm3, PCT ≥ 0.2 ng/mL, and Charlson index ≥ 5 were risk factors for bacterial co-infection. A point was assigned to each variable obtaining a predictive score ranging from 0 to 5. In the validation cohort, ROC analysis showed AUC of 0.83 (95%CI 0.75-0.90). The optimal cut-point was ≥2 with sensitivity 70.0%, specificity 75.9%, positive predictive value 16.0% and negative predictive value 97.5%. According to individual risk score, patients were classified at low (point 0), intermediate (point 1), and high risk (point ≥ 2). CURB-65 ≥ 2 was further proposed to identify patients at intermediate risk who would benefit from early antibiotic coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Our score may be useful in stratifying bacterial co-infection risk in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, optimizing diagnostic testing and antibiotic use.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
4.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(8): 1057-1065, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant increased risk of complications and mortality in immunocompromised patients affected by COVID-19 has been described. However, the impact of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is an issue still under debate, due to conflicting evidence that has emerged from different observational studies. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review with a meta-analysis to assess the clinical outcome in SOT recipients with COVID-19 compared with the general population. DATA SOURCES: PubMed-MEDLINE and Scopus were independently searched until 13 October 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective or retrospective observational studies comparing clinical outcome in SOT recipients versus general populations affected by COVID-19 were included. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were patients with confirmed COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Interventions reviewed were SOTs. METHODS: The quality of the included studies was independently assessed with the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions tool for observational studies. The meta-analysis was performed by pooling ORs retrieved from studies providing adjustment for confounders using a random-effects model with the inverse variance method. Multiple subgroups and sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the source of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 3501 articles were screened, and 31 observational studies (N = 590 375; 5759 SOT recipients vs. 584 616 general population) were included in the meta-analyses. No difference in 30-day mortality rate was found in the primary analysis, including studies providing adjustment for confounders (N = 17; 3752 SOT recipients vs. 159 745 general population; OR: 1.13; 95% CI, 0.94-1.35; I2 = 33.9%). No evidence of publication bias was reported. A higher risk of intensive care unit admission (OR: 1.56; 95% CI, 1.03-2.63) and occurrence of acute kidney injury (OR: 2.50; 95% CI, 1.81-3.45) was found in SOT recipients. CONCLUSIONS: No increased risk in mortality was found in SOT recipients affected by COVID-19 compared with the general population when adjusted for demographic and clinical features and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309625

ABSTRACT

Background: Asthma exacerbations, a common reason for Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) referral, can be triggered by multiple factors, including infections, air pollution and allergens. Lockdown measures and other public health interventions during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic determined radical changes to behavioral and social habits, that were reflected by a reduction in the transmission of all respiratory pathogens and in the emissions of relevant air pollution anthropogenic sources. Objective: This study aims to describe how restrictions during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic impacted the PED referral for asthma exacerbations and their potentially associated environmental triggers in densely populated urban areas. Methods: PED referrals for acute asthma from 2015 to 2020 were compared to air pollution and pollen data. To this purpose, historical daily concentration records of PM2.5, PM10 (including specific chemical tracers), as well as NO2, C6H6, tree, grass and weed pollen were analyzed. Results: In 2020, asthma-related PED referrals decreased up to 85%, compared to the average referral rate of the previous 5 years (P<0.01). The drastic drop in PED referrals was associated with a reduction of high-priority cases by 50-60%, unlike PED referrals for overall diagnoses, showing a larger contribution for severe outcomes. A concomitant diminished contribution of traffic-related air pollution was shown. Conclusions: The lower rate of asthma exacerbations in childhood can be related to synergic interactions of the multiple effects of lockdown measures which induced lower viral infection rates and decreased exposure to outdoor allergens. The reduction of traffic-related air pollution determined a weakening of inflammatory properties of urban PM.

6.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 3(4): dlab174, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528164

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the impact of cefiderocol use on outcome in patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19 and further diagnosed with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab) infection. METHODS: Retrospective multicentre observational study was performed at four Italian hospitals, from January 2020 to April 2021. Adult patients admitted to ICU for severe COVID-19 and further diagnosed with CR-Ab infections were enrolled. Patients treated with cefiderocol, as compassionate use, for at least 72 h were compared with those receiving alternative regimens. Primary endpoint was all-cause 28 day mortality. The impact of cefiderocol on mortality was evaluated by multivariable Cox regression model. RESULTS: In total, 107 patients were enrolled (76% male, median age 65 years). The median time from ICU admission to CR-Ab infection diagnosis was 14 (IQR 8-20) days, and the main types of CR-Ab infections were bloodstream infection (58%) and lower respiratory tract infection (41%). Cefiderocol was administered to 42 patients within a median of 2 (IQR 1-4) days after CR-Ab infection diagnosis and as monotherapy in all cases. The remaining patients received colistin, mostly (82%) administered as combination therapy. All-cause 28 day mortality rate was 57%, without differences between groups (cefiderocol 55% versus colistin 58% P = 0.70). In multivariable analysis, the independent risk factor for mortality was SOFA score (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.15-1.38, P < 0.001). Cefiderocol was associated with a non-significant lower mortality risk (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.38-1.08, P = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the potential role of cefiderocol in the treatment of CR-Ab infection, but larger clinical studies are needed.

7.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 66-74, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown measures during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic determined radical changes to behavioral and social habits, that were reflected by a reduction in the transmission of respiratory pathogens and in anthropogenic atmospheric emissions. OBJECTIVE: This ecological study aims to provide a descriptive evaluation on how restrictive measures during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic impacted Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) referrals for asthma exacerbations, and their potentially associated environmental triggers in Bologna, a densely populated urban area in Northern Italy. METHODS: Files of children evaluated for acute asthma during 2015 to 2020 at the PED of Sant'Orsola University Hospital of Bologna were retrospectively reviewed. Historical daily concentration records of particulate (PM2.5 , PM10 ) and gaseous (NO2 , C6 H6 ) air pollutants, and pollen were concurrently evaluated, including specific PM chemical tracers for traffic-related air pollution (TRAP). RESULTS: In 2020, asthma-related PED referrals decreased compared to referral rates of the previous 5 years (p < 0.01). This effect was particularly marked during the first lockdown period (March to May), when the drastic drop in PED referrals was associated with a reduction of high-priority cases up to 85% and by 54%, on average. A concomitant reduction in the concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants was observed in the range of 40%-60% (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The lower rate of asthma exacerbations in childhood was in this study paralleled with reduced TRAP levels during the pandemic. Synergic interactions of the multiple consequences of lockdowns likely contributed to the reduced exacerbations, including decreased exposure to ambient pollutants and fewer respiratory infections, identified as the most important factor in the literature.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Asthma , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Asthma/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Turk Arch Pediatr ; 56(5): 479-484, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the pandemic of SARS-Cov-2, among other clinical and public health issues, a major concern raised by SARS-CoV-2 is the possibility of transmission of the infection from mother to child in the perinatal period. This has placed a question mark on the safety of breastfeeding, with ambiguity on the joint management of SARS-CoV-2 positive or suspected mothers and their children. It was aimed to evaluate breastfeeding rates for newborns of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers who were temporarily separated from their babies at birth, compared to those who were not separated. RESULTS: Babies who were not isolated from their mothers at delivery were significantly more likely to be breastfed and were at no higher risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and strict hand and mask hygiene measures, breastfeeding practices can be established and maintained through rooming-in, thus promoting the mother-child bond without compromising the safety of the newborn.

9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(2): 853-857, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397006

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed at describing potential indirect effects of pandemic-related measures on very-low-birthweight infants in four Italian NICUs. No overall change in late-onset sepsis (LOS) and necrotizing enterocolitis was documented. However, in the NICU where baseline LOS rate was high, a significant reduction in LOS incidence was recorded. Conclusion: COVID-19-related implementation of NICU hygiene policies is likely to reduce the occurrence of LOS in high-risk settings. What is Known: • COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine care in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs), mostly by tightening infection control measures and restricting parental presence in the NICU. • Beyond the described psychological impact of COVID-19 related measures on healthcare workers and NICU families, their consequences in terms of preterm infants' clinical outcomes have not been described in detail yet. What is New: • Strengthened infection-control measures do not seem to have an overall influence on the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants. • However, the implementation of these measures appears to reduce the occurrence of late-onset sepsis in settings where the baseline incidence of the disease is high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Sepsis , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/etiology
10.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 105-111, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-861317

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of corticosteroids in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A multicentre observational study was performed from 22 February through 30 June 2020. We included consecutive adult patients with severe COVID-19, defined as respiratory rate ≥30 breath per minute, oxygen saturation ≤93% on ambient air or arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ≤300 mm Hg. We excluded patients being treated with other immunomodulant drugs, receiving low-dose corticosteroids and receiving corticosteroids 72 hours after admission. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality from hospital admission. The main exposure variable was corticosteroid therapy at a dose of ≥0.5 mg/kg of prednisone equivalents. It was introduced as binomial covariate in a logistic regression model for the primary endpoint and inverse probability of treatment weighting using the propensity score. RESULTS: Of 1717 patients with COVID-19 evaluated, 513 were included in the study, and of these, 170 (33%) were treated with corticosteroids. During hospitalization, 166 patients (34%) met the criteria of the primary outcome (60/170, 35% in the corticosteroid group and 106/343, 31% in the noncorticosteroid group). At multivariable analysis corticosteroid treatment was not associated with lower 30-day mortality rate (adjusted odds ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-1.74; p 0.33). After inverse probability of treatment weighting, corticosteroids were not associated with lower 30-day mortality (average treatment effect, 0.05; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.09; p 0.12). However, subgroup analysis revealed that in patients with PO2/FiO2 < 200 mm Hg at admission (135 patients, 52 (38%) treated with corticosteroids), corticosteroid treatment was associated with a lower risk of 30-day mortality (23/52, 44% vs. 45/83, 54%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04-0.90; p 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of corticosteroid treatment on mortality might be limited to critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Italy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
12.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(11): 1545-1553, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop and validate a risk score to predict severe respiratory failure (SRF) among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed a multicentre cohort study among hospitalized (>24 hours) patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from 22 February to 3 April 2020, at 11 Italian hospitals. Patients were divided into derivation and validation cohorts according to random sorting of hospitals. SRF was assessed from admission to hospital discharge and was defined as: Spo2 <93% with 100% Fio2, respiratory rate >30 breaths/min or respiratory distress. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify predictors of SRF, ß-coefficients were used to develop a risk score. Trial Registration NCT04316949. RESULTS: We analysed 1113 patients (644 derivation, 469 validation cohort). Mean (±SD) age was 65.7 (±15) years, 704 (63.3%) were male. SRF occurred in 189/644 (29%) and 187/469 (40%) patients in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. At multivariate analysis, risk factors for SRF in the derivation cohort assessed at hospitalization were age ≥70 years (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.66-4.50), obesity (OR 4.62; 95% CI 2.78-7.70), body temperature ≥38°C (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.30-2.29), respiratory rate ≥22 breaths/min (OR 3.75; 95% CI 2.01-7.01), lymphocytes ≤900 cells/mm3 (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.60-4.51), creatinine ≥1 mg/dL (OR 2.38; 95% CI 1.59-3.56), C-reactive protein ≥10 mg/dL (OR 5.91; 95% CI 4.88-7.17) and lactate dehydrogenase ≥350 IU/L (OR 2.39; 95% CI 1.11-5.11). Assigning points to each variable, an individual risk score (PREDI-CO score) was obtained. Area under the receiver-operator curve was 0.89 (0.86-0.92). At a score of >3, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 71.6% (65%-79%), 89.1% (86%-92%), 74% (67%-80%) and 89% (85%-91%), respectively. PREDI-CO score showed similar prognostic ability in the validation cohort: area under the receiver-operator curve 0.85 (0.81-0.88). At a score of >3, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 80% (73%-85%), 76% (70%-81%), 69% (60%-74%) and 85% (80%-89%), respectively. CONCLUSION: PREDI-CO score can be useful to allocate resources and prioritize treatments during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Logistic Models , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
13.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(1): e13421, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-700195

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with worse outcome in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We performed a prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, from March 15 to April 30, 2020, at two tertiary hospitals in Emilia-Romagna Region. SOT recipients were compared with non-SOT patients. Primary endpoint was all-cause 30-day mortality. Relationship between SOT status and mortality was investigated by univariable and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Patients were assessed from COVID-19 diagnosis to death or 30-day whichever occurred first. Study cohort consisted of 885 patients, of them 24 SOT recipients (n = 22, kidney, n = 2 liver). SOT recipients were younger, had lower BMI, but higher Charlson Index. At admission they presented less frequently with fever and respiratory failure. No difference in 30-day mortality between the two groups (19% vs 22.1%) was found; however, there was a trend toward higher rate of respiratory failure (50% vs 33.1%, P = .07) in SOT recipients. Superinfections were more represented in SOT recipients, (50% vs 15.5%, P < .001). At multivariate analysis adjusted for main covariates, there was no association between SOT and 30-day mortality HR 1.15 (95% CI 0.39-3.35) P = .79. Our data suggest that mortality among COVID-19 SOT recipients is similar to general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Organ Transplantation , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3606-e3614, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis among intubated patients with critical COVID-19 and evaluated different case definitions of invasive aspergillosis. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter study in adult patients with microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation. All included participants underwent a screening protocol for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan and cultures performed on admission at 7 days and in case of clinical deterioration. Cases were classified as coronavirus-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) according to previous consensus definitions. The new definition was compared with putative invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (PIPA). RESULTS: 108 patients were enrolled. Probable CAPA was diagnosed in 30 (27.7%) patients after a median of 4 (2-8) days from intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significantly higher 30-day mortality rate from ICU admission among patients with either CAPA (44% vs 19%, P = .002) or PIPA (74% vs 26%, P < .001) when compared with patients not fulfilling criteria for aspergillosis. The association between CAPA (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.29-9.67; P = .014) or PIPA (OR, 11.60; 95% CI, 3.24-41.29; P < .001) with 30-day mortality from ICU admission was confirmed, even after adjustment for confounders with a logistic regression model. Among patients with CAPA receiving voriconazole treatment (13 patients; 43%) a trend toward lower mortality (46% vs 59%; P = .30) and reduction in galactomannan index in consecutive samples were observed. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high incidence of CAPA among critically ill COVID-19 patients and its occurrence seems to change the natural course of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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