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EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296942

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the factors contributing to the development of protective immunity after vaccination with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines is fragmentary. Thus we employed high-temporal-resolution transcriptome profiling and in-depth characterization of antibody production approaches to investigate responses to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. There were marked differences in the timing and amplitude of the responses to the priming and booster doses. Notably, two distinct interferon signatures were identified, that differed based on their temporal patterns of induction. The first signature (S1), which was preferentially induced by type I interferon, peaked at day 2 post-prime and at day 1 post-boost, and in both instances was associated with subsequent development of the antibody response. In contrast, the second interferon signature (S2) peaked at day 1 both post-prime and post-boost but was found to be potently induced only post-boost, where it coincided with a robust inflammation peak. Notably, we also observed post-prime-like (S1++,S20/+) and post-boost-like (S1++,S2++) patterns of interferon response among COVID-19 patients. A post-boost-like signature was observed in most severely ill patients at admission to the intensive care unit and was associated with a shorter hospital stay. Interestingly, severely ill patients who stayed hospitalized the longest showed a peculiar pattern of interferon induction (S1-/0,S2+), that we did not observe following the administration of mRNA vaccines. In summary, high temporal resolution profiling revealed an elaborate array of immune responses elicited by priming and booster doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Furthermore, it contributed to the identification of distinct interferon-response phenotypes underpinning vaccine immunogenicity and the course of COVID-19 disease.

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