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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713295

ABSTRACT

An increased incidence of chilblains has been observed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and attributed to viral infection. Direct evidence of this relationship has been limited, however, as most cases do not have molecular evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection with PCR or antibodies. We enrolled a cohort of 23 patients who were diagnosed and managed as having SARS-CoV-2-associated skin eruptions (including 21 pandemic chilblains [PC]) during the first wave of the pandemic in Connecticut. Antibody responses were determined through endpoint titration enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum epitope repertoire analysis. T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 were assessed by T cell receptor sequencing and in vitro SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific peptide stimulation assays. Immunohistochemical and PCR studies of PC biopsies and tissue microarrays for evidence of SARS-CoV-2 were performed. Among patients diagnosed and managed as "covid toes" during the pandemic, we find a percentage of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (9.5%) that approximates background seroprevalence (8.5%) at the time. Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that SARS-CoV-2 staining in PC biopsies may not be from SARS-CoV-2. Our results do not support SARS-CoV-2 as the causative agent of pandemic chilblains; however, our study does not exclude the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 seronegative abortive infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chilblains/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/epidemiology , Chilblains/virology , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
2.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495792

ABSTRACT

Acute COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by diverse clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal respiratory failure, and often associated with varied longer-term sequelae. Over the past 18 months, it has become apparent that inappropriate immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Researchers working at the intersection of COVID-19 and autoimmunity recently gathered at an American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association Noel R. Rose Colloquium to address the current state of knowledge regarding two important questions: Does established autoimmunity predispose to severe COVID-19? And, at the same time, can SARS-CoV-2 infection trigger de novo autoimmunity? Indeed, work to date has demonstrated that 10% to 15% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia exhibit autoantibodies against type I interferons, suggesting that preexisting autoimmunity underlies severe disease in some patients. Other studies have identified functional autoantibodies following infection with SARS-CoV-2, such as those that promote thrombosis or antagonize cytokine signaling. These autoantibodies may arise from a predominantly extrafollicular B cell response that is more prone to generating autoantibody-secreting B cells. This Review highlights the current understanding, evolving concepts, and unanswered questions provided by this unique opportunity to determine mechanisms by which a viral infection can be exacerbated by, and even trigger, autoimmunity. The potential role of autoimmunity in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/chemistry , Autoimmunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Signal Transduction , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophage Activation , Male , Mice , Phospholipids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nat Biotechnol ; 40(3): 374-381, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483138

ABSTRACT

Multimodal measurements of single-cell profiles are proving increasingly useful for characterizing cell states and regulatory mechanisms. In the present study, we developed PHAGE-ATAC (Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin), a massively parallel droplet-based method that uses phage displaying, engineered, camelid single-domain antibodies ('nanobodies') for simultaneous single-cell measurements of protein levels and chromatin accessibility profiles, and mitochondrial DNA-based clonal tracing. We use PHAGE-ATAC for multimodal analysis in primary human immune cells, sample multiplexing, intracellular protein analysis and the detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in human cell populations. Finally, we construct a synthetic high-complexity phage library for selection of antigen-specific nanobodies that bind cells of particular molecular profiles, opening an avenue for protein detection, cell characterization and screening with single-cell genomics.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Bacteriophages/genetics , Chromatin/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Nature ; 588(7837): 315-320, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337122

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) produces more severe symptoms and higher mortality among men than among women1-5. However, whether immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) differ between sexes, and whether such differences correlate with the sex difference in the disease course of COVID-19, is currently unknown. Here we examined sex differences in viral loads, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titres, plasma cytokines and blood-cell phenotyping in patients with moderate COVID-19 who had not received immunomodulatory medications. Male patients had higher plasma levels of innate immune cytokines such as IL-8 and IL-18 along with more robust induction of non-classical monocytes. By contrast, female patients had more robust T cell activation than male patients during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Notably, we found that a poor T cell response negatively correlated with patients' age and was associated with worse disease outcome in male patients, but not in female patients. By contrast, higher levels of innate immune cytokines were associated with worse disease progression in female patients, but not in male patients. These findings provide a possible explanation for the observed sex biases in COVID-19, and provide an important basis for the development of a sex-based approach to the treatment and care of male and female patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Characteristics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Monocytes/immunology , Phenotype , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load
7.
Nature ; 595(7866): 283-288, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233713

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 manifests with a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes that are characterized by exaggerated and misdirected host immune responses1-6. Although pathological innate immune activation is well-documented in severe disease1, the effect of autoantibodies on disease progression is less well-defined. Here we use a high-throughput autoantibody discovery technique known as rapid extracellular antigen profiling7 to screen a cohort of 194 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2, comprising 172 patients with COVID-19 and 22 healthcare workers with mild disease or asymptomatic infection, for autoantibodies against 2,770 extracellular and secreted proteins (members of the exoproteome). We found that patients with COVID-19 exhibit marked increases in autoantibody reactivities as compared to uninfected individuals, and show a high prevalence of autoantibodies against immunomodulatory proteins (including cytokines, chemokines, complement components and cell-surface proteins). We established that these autoantibodies perturb immune function and impair virological control by inhibiting immunoreceptor signalling and by altering peripheral immune cell composition, and found that mouse surrogates of these autoantibodies increase disease severity in a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our analysis of autoantibodies against tissue-associated antigens revealed associations with specific clinical characteristics. Our findings suggest a pathological role for exoproteome-directed autoantibodies in COVID-19, with diverse effects on immune functionality and associations with clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/analysis , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Proteome/immunology , Proteome/metabolism , Animals , Antigens, Surface/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Organ Specificity/immunology
8.
Nat Med ; 27(7): 1178-1186, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217708

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have provided insights into innate and adaptive immune dynamics in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the exact features of antibody responses that govern COVID-19 disease outcomes remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed humoral immune responses in 229 patients with asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 over time to probe the nature of antibody responses in disease severity and mortality. We observed a correlation between anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, length of hospitalization and clinical parameters associated with worse clinical progression. Although high anti-S IgG levels correlated with worse disease severity, such correlation was time dependent. Deceased patients did not have higher overall humoral response than discharged patients. However, they mounted a robust, yet delayed, response, measured by anti-S, anti-receptor-binding domain IgG and neutralizing antibody (NAb) levels compared to survivors. Delayed seroconversion kinetics correlated with impaired viral control in deceased patients. Finally, although sera from 85% of patients displayed some neutralization capacity during their disease course, NAb generation before 14 d of disease onset emerged as a key factor for recovery. These data indicate that COVID-19 mortality does not correlate with the cross-sectional antiviral antibody levels per se but, rather, with the delayed kinetics of NAb production.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Carrier State/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Kinetics , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
9.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(12): e454-e456, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892108

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for inexpensive, population-wide surveillance testing for COVID-19. We tested newborn dried blood spot (DBS) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies for all infants born at Yale from March to May 2020, and found that newborn DBS serologies reflect maternal and population-wide infection rates during the study period. This suggests a role for DBS in COVID-19 surveillance in areas where viral testing is limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Dried Blood Spot Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Seasons , Seroepidemiologic Studies
10.
J Clin Invest ; 130(9): 4947-4953, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe effects of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy remain relatively unknown. We present a case of second trimester pregnancy with symptomatic COVID-19 complicated by severe preeclampsia and placental abruption.METHODSWe analyzed the placenta for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through molecular and immunohistochemical assays and by and electron microscopy and measured the maternal antibody response in the blood to this infection.RESULTSSARS-CoV-2 localized predominantly to syncytiotrophoblast cells at the materno-fetal interface of the placenta. Histological examination of the placenta revealed a dense macrophage infiltrate, but no evidence for the vasculopathy typically associated with preeclampsia.CONCLUSIONThis case demonstrates SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the placenta, highlighting the potential for severe morbidity among pregnant women with COVID-19.FUNDINGBeatrice Kleinberg Neuwirth Fund and Fast Grant Emergent Ventures funding from the Mercatus Center at George Mason University. The funding bodies did not have roles in the design of the study or data collection, analysis, and interpretation and played no role in writing the manuscript.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Abortion, Therapeutic , Abruptio Placentae/etiology , Abruptio Placentae/pathology , Abruptio Placentae/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pre-Eclampsia/etiology , Pre-Eclampsia/pathology , Pre-Eclampsia/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
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