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J Clin Med ; 11(11)2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869660


The COVID-19 pandemic has led to numerous negative implications for all aspects of society. Although COVID-19 is a predominant lung disease, in 10-30% of cases, it is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The presence of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients occurs with a frequency between 7-36%. There is growing evidence of the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in COVID-19, both due to coronary artery thrombosis and insufficient oxygen supply to the myocardium in conditions of an increased need. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a major challenge for physicians. Often the presence of mixed symptoms, due to the combined presence of COVID-19 and ACS, as well as possible other diseases, nonspecific changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG), and often elevated serum troponin (cTn), create dilemmas in diagnosing ACS in COVID-19. Given the often-high ischemic risk, as well as the risk of bleeding, in these patients and analyzing the benefit/risk ratio, the treatment of patients with AMI and COVID-19 is often associated with dilemmas and difficult decisions. Due to delays in the application of the therapeutic regimen, complications of AMI are more common, and the mortality rate is higher.

Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(11): 1806-1818, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453574


Patients with heart failure (HF) who contract SARS-CoV-2 infection are at a higher risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Regardless of therapeutic attempts in COVID-19, vaccination remains the most promising global approach at present for controlling this disease. There are several concerns and misconceptions regarding the clinical indications, optimal mode of delivery, safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines for patients with HF. This document provides guidance to all healthcare professionals regarding the implementation of a COVID-19 vaccination scheme in patients with HF. COVID-19 vaccination is indicated in all patients with HF, including those who are immunocompromised (e.g. after heart transplantation receiving immunosuppressive therapy) and with frailty syndrome. It is preferable to vaccinate against COVID-19 patients with HF in an optimal clinical state, which would include clinical stability, adequate hydration and nutrition, optimized treatment of HF and other comorbidities (including iron deficiency), but corrective measures should not be allowed to delay vaccination. Patients with HF who have been vaccinated against COVID-19 need to continue precautionary measures, including the use of facemasks, hand hygiene and social distancing. Knowledge on strategies preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (including the COVID-19 vaccination) should be included in the comprehensive educational programmes delivered to patients with HF.

COVID-19 , Cardiology , Heart Failure , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Frail Elderly , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 175-182, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959153


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. The clinical presentation of this virus mainly manifests in the respiratory system but may also lead to severe complications in the cardiovascular system. The global burden of COVID-19 has led to an unprecedented need to gain further insight into patient outcomes, management, and clinical practice. This review aims to provide an overview of the current literature on heart failure (HF) hospitalizations, management, and care pathways for supporting patients during and beyond this pandemic. A literature review of five areas of interest was conducted and included: (i) HF hospitalization; (ii) recognizing the needs and supporting HF patients during COVID-19; (iii) supporting rehabilitation services; (iv) transitioning to a telehealth framework; and (v) the need for evidence. Patients with new-onset or existing HF are particularly vulnerable, but a significant reduction in HF hospital admissions has been reported. During these periods of uncertainty, the current care pathways for acute and elective cardiac patients have had to change with the relocation of HF services to protect the vulnerable and reduce transmission of COVID-19. Optimizing community HF services has the potential to reduce the pressures on secondary care during the recovery from this pandemic. Telemedicine and virtual health care are emerging technologies and overcome the risk of in-person exposure. Successful remote delivery of cardiac rehabilitation services has been reported during the pandemic. Delivery of a robust telehealth framework for HF patients will improve communication between clinician and patient. The reduction in HF admissions is a concern for the future and may result in unintended mortality. New-onset and current HF patients must understand their diagnosis and future prognosis and seek help and support using the appropriate platform when needed. Realigning HF services and the use of telemedicine and virtual health care has great potential but needs to be carefully understood to ensure engagement and approval in this population to overcome barriers and challenges.

COVID-19/therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospitalization , Critical Pathways , Humans , Telemedicine , Treatment Outcome