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Front Immunol ; 13: 891274, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924105


We described the case of a patient affected by activated PI3K-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) and a long-lasting and pauci-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, treated with multiple therapeutic agents including remdesivir and SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. We detected the clearance of the virus 105 days from the first positive swab and 7 days after monoclonal antibody administration. At genotyping, the SARS-CoV-2 virus resulted as wild type on all samples tested. This case shows the monoclonal antibodies' good tolerability and efficacy in reducing viral shedding in long-lasting infections refractory to other treatments.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
J Clin Immunol ; 42(5): 935-946, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802997


COVID-19 manifestations range from asymptomatic to life-threatening infections. The outcome in different inborn errors of immunity (IEI) is still a matter of debate. In this retrospective study, we describe the experience of the of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiencies Network (IPINet). Sixteen reference centers for adult or pediatric IEI were involved. One hundred fourteen patients were enrolled including 35 pediatric and 79 adult patients. Median age was 32 years, and male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common IEI were 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in children (26%) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) in adults (65%). Ninety-one patients did not require hospital admission, and among these, 33 were asymptomatic. Hospitalization rate was 20.17%. Older age (p 0.004) and chronic lung disease (p 0.0008) represented risk factors for hospitalization. Hospitalized patients mainly included adults suffering from humoral immunodeficiencies requiring immunoglobulin replacement therapy and as expected had lower B cell counts compared to non-hospitalized patients. Infection fatality rate in the whole cohort was 3.5%. Seroconversion was observed is 86.6% of the patients evaluated and in 83.3% of CVID patients. 16.85% of the patients reported long-lasting COVID symptoms. All but one patient with prolonged symptoms were under IgRT. The fatality rate observed in IEI was slightly similar to the general population. The age of the patients who did not survive was lower compared to the general population, and the age stratified mortality in the 50-60 age range considerable exceeded the mortality from 50 to 60 age group of the Italian population (14.3 vs 0.6%; p < 0.0001). We hypothesize that this is due to the fact that comorbidities in IEI patients are very common and usually appear early in life.

COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
Front Immunol ; 12: 727850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477821


Mass SARS-Cov-2 vaccination campaign represents the only strategy to defeat the global pandemic we are facing. Immunocompromised patients represent a vulnerable population at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 and thus should be prioritized in the vaccination programs and in the study of the vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, most data on efficacy and safety of the available vaccines derive from trials conducted on healthy individuals; hence, studies on immunogenicity of SARS-CoV2 vaccines in such populations are deeply needed. Here, we perform an observational longitudinal study analyzing the humoral and cellular response following the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of patients affected by inborn errors of immunity (IEI) compared to healthy controls (HC). We show that both IEI and HC groups experienced a significant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs 1 week after the second scheduled dose as well as an overall statistically significant expansion of the Ag-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells in both HC and IEI. Five IEI patients did not develop any specific CD4+CD40L+ T cellular response, with one of these patients unable to also mount any humoral response. These data raise immunologic concerns about using Ab response as a sole metric of protective immunity following vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that evaluation of vaccine-induced immunity in this subpopulation should also include quantification of Ag-specific T cells.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult