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Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704407


The constant battle between viruses and their hosts leads to their reciprocal evolution. Viruses regularly develop survival strategies against host immunity, while their ability to replicate and disseminate is countered by the antiviral defense mechanisms that host mount. Although most viral infections are generally controlled by the host's immune system, some viruses do cause overt damage to the host. The outcome can vary widely depending on the properties of the infecting virus and the circumstances of infection but also depends on several factors controlled by the host, including host genetic susceptibility to viral infections. In this narrative review, we provide a brief overview of host immunity to viruses and immune-evasion strategies developed by viruses. Moreover, we focus on inborn errors of immunity, these being considered a model for studying host response mechanisms to viruses. We finally report exemplary inborn errors of both the innate and adaptive immune systems that highlight the role of proteins involved in the control of viral infections.

Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Virus Replication , Viruses/genetics
Front Immunol ; 12: 727850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477821


Mass SARS-Cov-2 vaccination campaign represents the only strategy to defeat the global pandemic we are facing. Immunocompromised patients represent a vulnerable population at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 and thus should be prioritized in the vaccination programs and in the study of the vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, most data on efficacy and safety of the available vaccines derive from trials conducted on healthy individuals; hence, studies on immunogenicity of SARS-CoV2 vaccines in such populations are deeply needed. Here, we perform an observational longitudinal study analyzing the humoral and cellular response following the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of patients affected by inborn errors of immunity (IEI) compared to healthy controls (HC). We show that both IEI and HC groups experienced a significant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs 1 week after the second scheduled dose as well as an overall statistically significant expansion of the Ag-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells in both HC and IEI. Five IEI patients did not develop any specific CD4+CD40L+ T cellular response, with one of these patients unable to also mount any humoral response. These data raise immunologic concerns about using Ab response as a sole metric of protective immunity following vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that evaluation of vaccine-induced immunity in this subpopulation should also include quantification of Ag-specific T cells.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult