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BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438096


INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 100 million cases worldwide. The UK has had over 4 million cases, 400 000 hospital admissions and 100 000 deaths. Many patients with COVID-19 suffer long-term symptoms, predominantly breathlessness and fatigue whether hospitalised or not. Early data suggest potentially severe long-term consequence of COVID-19 is development of long COVID-19-related interstitial lung disease (LC-ILD). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The UK Interstitial Lung Disease Consortium (UKILD) will undertake longitudinal observational studies of patients with suspected ILD following COVID-19. The primary objective is to determine ILD prevalence at 12 months following infection and whether clinically severe infection correlates with severity of ILD. Secondary objectives will determine the clinical, genetic, epigenetic and biochemical factors that determine the trajectory of recovery or progression of ILD. Data will be obtained through linkage to the Post-Hospitalisation COVID platform study and community studies. Additional substudies will conduct deep phenotyping. The Xenon MRI investigation of Alveolar dysfunction Substudy will conduct longitudinal xenon alveolar gas transfer and proton perfusion MRI. The POST COVID-19 interstitial lung DiseasE substudy will conduct clinically indicated bronchoalveolar lavage with matched whole blood sampling. Assessments include exploratory single cell RNA and lung microbiomics analysis, gene expression and epigenetic assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All contributing studies have been granted appropriate ethical approvals. Results from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals. CONCLUSION: This study will ensure the extent and consequences of LC-ILD are established and enable strategies to mitigate progression of LC-ILD.

COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
Adv Ther ; 38(8): 4505-4519, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316342


INTRODUCTION: At the end of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 78 million known survivors were recorded. The long-term pulmonary sequelae of COVID-19 remain unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a post-COVID follow-up service to estimate the burden of persistent pulmonary morbidity in hospitalised COVID survivors. RESULTS: A total of 221 patients were followed-up: 44 intensive care unit (ICU) and 177 ward patients. Further investigations were planned as per British Thoracic Society Guidelines: For all ICU patients (n = 44) and for 38 of 177 (21%) ward-based patients who had persistent symptoms and/or persistent radiographic changes on CXR at their initial 8-week follow-up visit. In the ward-based cohort, statistically significant associations with persistent symptoms were being an ex- or current smoker, having pre-existing diabetes, and having a longer length of stay. In patients requiring further investigations, pulmonary function tests (PFTs; n = 67) at an average of 15 weeks post-discharge showed abnormalities in at least one PFT parameter in 79% (equating to 24% of the entire cohort). The most common abnormality was an abnormal diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (TLCO), highest in the ICU cohort (64% ICU vs. 38% non-ICU). TLCO correlated negatively with length of stay and with maximum inspired FiO2 in the patient group as a whole. In ICU patients, TLCO correlated negatively with maximum inspired positive airway pressure. Computed tomography scans (n = 72) at an average of 18 weeks post-discharge showed evidence of persistent ground glass opacities in 44% and fibrosis in 21% (equating to 7% of the entire cohort). CONCLUSION: Our data add to the growing evidence that there will be pulmonary sequelae in a proportion of COVID survivors, providing some insight into what may become a significant chronic global health problem.

COVID-19 , Aftercare , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(12): 1656-1665, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810560


Rationale: The impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been established.Objectives: To assess outcomes in patients with ILD hospitalized for COVID-19 versus those without ILD in a contemporaneous age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched population.Methods: An international multicenter audit of patients with a prior diagnosis of ILD admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 between March 1 and May 1, 2020, was undertaken and compared with patients without ILD, obtained from the ISARIC4C (International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium) cohort, admitted with COVID-19 over the same period. The primary outcome was survival. Secondary analysis distinguished idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from non-idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ILD and used lung function to determine the greatest risks of death.Measurements and Main Results: Data from 349 patients with ILD across Europe were included, of whom 161 were admitted to the hospital with laboratory or clinical evidence of COVID-19 and eligible for propensity score matching. Overall mortality was 49% (79/161) in patients with ILD with COVID-19. After matching, patients with ILD with COVID-19 had significantly poorer survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; confidence interval, 1.17-2.18; P = 0.003) than age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched controls without ILD. Patients with an FVC of <80% had an increased risk of death versus patients with FVC ≥80% (HR, 1.72; 1.05-2.83). Furthermore, obese patients with ILD had an elevated risk of death (HR, 2.27; 1.39-3.71).Conclusions: Patients with ILD are at increased risk of death from COVID-19, particularly those with poor lung function and obesity. Stringent precautions should be taken to avoid COVID-19 in patients with ILD.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed