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1.
Vision (Basel) ; 6(2)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelial cells damage and thromboinflammation are considered key elements in the generation of organ impairment in patients with COVID-19 disease. The endothelial function is evaluated by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD). We aimed to analyze the association between FMD impairment and retinal vascular parameters in early post-COVID-19 patients. 00118-00199Tomography (OCT), OCT Angiography (OCTA) and slit lamp examination were performed. FMD ≤ 7% was considered as pathological. Our primary outcome was to assess potential differences in the radial peripapillary capillary plexus flow index (RPCP-FI) and RPCP density (RPCP-D) values between post-COVID-19 patients with and without FMD impairment. The associations of other retinal vascular parameters with FMD impairment were assessed as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: FMD impairment was detected in 31 patients (37.8%). RPCP-FI (p = 0.047), age (p = 0.048) and prevalence of diabetes (p = 0.046) significantly differed in patients with FMD ≤ 7% in regression analysis. RPCP-FI was linearly correlated with FMD values (R = 0.244, p =0.027). SCT was found to be lower in patients with impaired FMD (p = 0.004), although this difference was only a trend in binary logistic regression output (p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Early post-COVID-19 patients showed a higher prevalence of FMD impairment compared to the general population. Age, diabetes and RPCP-FI were independently correlated with the presence of endothelial impairment in the early post-infective period.

3.
Trends Mol Med ; 26(6): 529-531, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720652

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly spreading around the world. The first doctor to report this new disease was an ophthalmologist: this exemplifies the role of ophthalmologists in an infectious disease pandemic. Here we review how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the eye and discuss implications for ophthalmologists.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Conjunctiva/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Conjunctivitis, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Eye/virology , Humans , Ophthalmologists , Ophthalmology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721221079153, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelium damage is a crucial element in the pathogenesis of SARS-Cov-2 infection. Most casualties in critical COVID-19 cases are due to ARDS, diffuse coagulopathy and cytokine storm. ARDS itself is a consequence of pulmonary endothelial cells damage. Damage to retinal capillary microcirculation in post-infective period has been investigated through Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA). The aim of the present study is to find a correlation between signs of retinal vascular damage and pulmonary impairment. METHODS: Patients admitted to hospital and subsequently recovered from COVID-19 infection were summoned 1 month later to undergo coherence tomography (CT) scan and OCTA examination. RESULTS: The study population included 87 COVID-19 patients with a mean age of 54.28 ± 14.44 years. Oxygen therapy, non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation were necessary in 33, 11 and 4 patients respectively to provide respiratory support during the acute course of the disease. Pulmonary involvement interested 54 patients (62.1%). Peripheral (27.6%) or diffuse (29.9%) involvement and ground glass (GG) opacities (47.1%) represented the prevalent radiological finding. A reduced RCPI FI was independently correlated with the presence of reticulation pattern in CT scan (p = .019). Also, RNFL and GCC were thinner in patients who displayed reticulation pattern (respectively p = .025 and p = .015). CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in RPCP-FI and RNFL and GCC thickness were independently correlated to the presence of CT reticulation pattern. This association can reflect cytokine induced remodeling in both organs as a consequence of systemic endothelial damage and inflammation.

5.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1349-1357, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358395

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact the COVID-19-related national lockdown has had on Ophthalmologic Outpatient Care in an Italian Tertiary Medical Centre. METHODS: We reviewed all the performances that were carried out as outpatient services at our department between 1 January 2020 and 30 November 2020. We compared data among four different periods: from 1 January 2020 to 17 March 2020 ("Pre-Lockdown"); from 18 March 2020 to 17 May 2020 (Lockdown); from 18 May 2020 to 2 November 2020 (Post-Lockdown) and from 3 November 2020 to 30 November 2020 (Regional Lockdown). RESULTS: The overall number of performed routine outpatient visits per day (ROVs) was 11,871 (Mean ± SD = 35.76 ± 17.81), whereas booked appointments (BAs) were 21272 (Mean ± SD = 63.86 ± 9.27), meaning a decline in the number of ROVs by 44.01%. (Mean ± SD = 28.10 ± 12.11, p<.001). Post-Lockdown and Regional Lockdown clinical activities, dropped respectively by 31 and 25.14% (38.87 ± 3.88 vs. 56.34 ± 11.06, p<.001 and 6.04 ± 4.51 vs. 56.34 ± 11.06 p<.001). The number of BAs per day decreased during the pandemic, going from a mean of 77.81 ± 2.57 booked appointments per day before the lockdown, to a mean of 53.14 ± 4.94, 61.80 ± 4.62 and 72.07 ± 1.09 appointments per day respectively during the lockdown, the post-lockdown and the regional lockdown periods. CONCLUSIONS: During the various lockdown periods, at our institution the volume of outpatient ophthalmological visits drastically dropped. This testifies the dramatic impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the supply of ophthalmic care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Ophthalmology/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Italy , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(9): 7, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344018

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess whether ozonated-oil in liposome eyedrop gel (OED) could be used to prevent the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in an in vitro infection model. Methods: First, we tested the efficacy of OED on in vitro cell regeneration and dry eye resolution in human corneal epithelial cells (hCE-2). Second, we assessed the in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 infection efficacy of OED using Vero E6 cells. Tissues were examined to assess different parameters: morphology, histology, and mRNA expression at 24 hours after treatment. Results: OED could restore 50% of the scratch in the monolayer of hCE-2 cells in vitro compared with the 25% obtained with phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS). At 24 hours after treatment with OED, the number of microvilli and the mucin network were restored, as observed using scanning electron microscopy. In Vero E6 cells infected with a primary SARS-CoV-2 strain and treated with OED two times/day, viral replication was found to be inhibited, with a 70-fold reduction observed at 72 hours after infection compared with that under the untreated and PBS-treated conditions. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 transmission through the ocular surface should not be ignored. Although the prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 conjunctivitis infection is low, the need for a barrier to prevent possible viral infection is warranted. OED treatment may prevent the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection after 72 hours of twice-daily applications. Translational Relevance: Dry eye condition might be a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and OED treatment may have a preventive role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Liposomes , Oils , Ophthalmic Solutions , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Cornea ; 40(4): 477-483, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262261

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This is a cohort study to evaluate the presence of objective signs and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease in postcoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients compared with the control. METHODS: Prospective, observational, single-ctenter, cohort study. Sixty-four post-COVID-19 patients and 50 control were recruited. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire (OSDI), best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, fundus examination, Schirmer test type 1, tear break-up time test (tBUT), evaluation of conjunctival hyperemia, corneal staining, and tear film osmolarity test. RESULTS: The OSDI score was higher in the post-COVID-19 group in the quantitative and qualitative analysis (P < 0.001 and P =0.012, respectively). The mean tBUT in post-COVID-19 patients was 6.95 ± 4.07 seconds compared with a mean tBUT of 10.12 ± 3.90 seconds in the control group. The post-COVID-19 group showed a higher number of patients with a simultaneous impairment of the OSDI score and tBUT (P = 0.019). The Schirmer test results were strikingly significant both in the quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis (P <0.001 and P = 0.0014, respectively). Both quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis revealed a significant difference in tear osmolarity in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the ocular surface assessment of post-COVID-19 patients with heathy control, a statistically significant increase of dry eye disease has emerged both in subjective and objective evaluations. Our clinical results support the findings that suggested a susceptibility of the ocular surface to the virus, and it underlines the importance of the ocular surface assessment in post-COVID-19 patients for a correct diagnosis and therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osmolar Concentration , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/etiology , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Tears/chemistry , Tears/physiology , Visual Acuity/physiology
8.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721211021296, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259130

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of multiple superior quadrant intraretinal haemorrhages in post-COVID-19 patient. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old male with a history of coronary artery disease and hypertension, presented with multiple superior quadrant intraretinal haemorrhages in the superonasal quadrant of the left eye 1 month after hospitalization for COVID-19. The right eye was normal. During his 10-day stay, he was treated with hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir + ritonavir, ceftriaxone, and his pre-existing antiplatelet therapy. During hospitalization, a complete medical work up showed an anomalous increase in D-dimer. He did not require intensive care support. CONCLUSIONS: In this report, we focused on the origin of retinal bleeding in a post COVID-19 patient, likely due to a focal occlusion of a vessel. Considering the nature of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we hypothesize that retinal haemorrhages were caused by a combination of factors including the patient's antiplatelet therapy and the thrombotic microvascular injury caused by the virus.

9.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 32(1): 695-703, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To compare the number of eye surgical procedures performed in Italy in the 2 months following the beginning of lockdown (study period) because of COVID-19 epidemic with those performed in the two earlier months of the same year (intra-year control) and in the period of 2019 corresponding to the lockdown (inter-year control). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of surgical procedures carried out at 39 Academic hospitals. A distinction was made between elective and urgent procedures. Intravitreal injections were also considered. Percentages for all surgical procedures and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) events were calculated. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 20,886 versus 55,259 and 56,640 patients underwent surgery during the lockdown versus intra-and inter-year control periods, respectively. During the lockdown, only 70% of patients for whom an operation/intravitreal injection was recommended, finally underwent surgery; the remaining patients did not attend because afraid of getting infected at the hospital (23%), taking public transportation (6.5%), or unavailable swabs (0.5%). Elective surgeries were reduced by 96.2% and 96.4%, urgent surgeries by 49.7% and 50.2%, and intravitreal injections by 48.5% and 48.6% in the lockdown period in comparison to intra-year and inter-year control periods, respectively. IRRs for RRDs during lockdown dropped significantly in comparison with intra- and inter-year control periods (CI: 0.65-0.80 and 0.61-0.75, respectively, p < 0.001 for both). CONCLUSION: This study provides a quantitative analysis of the reduction of eye surgical procedures performed in Italy because of the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Detachment , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 259(8): 2157-2165, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic vascular involvement in COVID-19 has been identified in several patients: not only endothelial derangement and increased permeability are reported to be early hallmarks of organ damage in patients with COVID-19 but are also the most important cause of worsening of clinical conditions in severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There are several reasons to hypothesize that the eye, and the retina in particular, could be a target of organ damage in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This cohort observational study analyzes OCT angiography and structural OCT of 70 post-COVID-19 patients evaluated at 1-month hospital discharge and 22 healthy control subjects. Primary outcomes were macular vessel density (VD) and vessel perfusion (VP); structural OCT features were evaluated as secondary outcomes. In addition, patients and healthy volunteers were evaluated for best corrected visual acuity, slit lamp photograph, and fundus photo image. RESULTS: VD and VP in 3 × 3 and 6 × 6 mm scans for SCP and DCP showed no significant differences between the groups. Similarly, CMT and GCL did not reveal significant differences between post-COVID-19 and healthy patients. Nine patients (12.9%) featured retinal cotton wool spots and 10 patients had vitreous fibrillary degeneration. The prevalence of epiretinal membrane and macular hole was similar in the two groups. One case of extra papillary focal retinal hemorrhage was reported in the post-COVID-19 group. CONCLUSIONS: Macula and perimacular vessel density and perfusion resulted unaltered in mild post-COVID-19 patients at 1-month hospital discharge, suggesting no or minimal retinal vascular involvement by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity
11.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 2886-2893, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The possible transmission of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by tears and conjunctiva is still debated. METHODS: Main outcome was to investigate the agreement between nasopharyngeal swab (NPs) and conjunctival swabs (Cs) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We divided patients into four groups: (1) NPs and Cs both negative (C-NF-), (2) NPs positive and Cs negative (NFs+Cs-), (3) NPs negative and Cs positive (NFs-Cs+), and (4) NPs and Cs both positive (NFs-Cs+). The secondary outcomes were to correlate Cs results with systemic clinical parameters such as: oxygen saturation (SpO2), dyspnea degree (DP), radiologic pulmonary impairment based on chest radiography (XR) or computed tomography (CT), blood chemistry as D-Dimer (D-Dimer), fibrinogen, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (C-RP). RESULTS: A total of 100 conjunctival swabs in 50 patients with SARS-CoV-2 have been enrolled in this interventional clinical trials. Ocular signs (conjunctivitis) were present in five patients (10%). NPs and Cs highlighted a poor level of agreement (0.025; p = 0.404). Median SpO2 levels are the highest in the NF-C- group (98%) and the lowest (90%) in the group NF+C+ (p = 0.001). Pulmonary impairment was statistically significantly different between NFs and Cs groups (p = 0.019). Pulmonary impairment score increased from NFs-Cs- group (3.8 ± 3.9), to NFs+Cs+ group (6.7 ± 4.1). Intensive care unit patients showed higher COVID-19 Cs positivity in conjunctiva (12.5%) against hospitalized ones (5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 the virus can be detected in conjunctival swab. Intensive care unit patients may reveal a higher COVID-19 presence in the conjunctiva. The most severe pulmonary impairment can be observed in NFs and Cs positivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registration. ETHICAL COMMITTEE AUTHORIZATION: ID number: 0013008/20.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conjunctiva/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Italy
12.
Cornea ; 40(4): 477-483, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936465

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This is a cohort study to evaluate the presence of objective signs and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease in postcoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients compared with the control. METHODS: Prospective, observational, single-ctenter, cohort study. Sixty-four post-COVID-19 patients and 50 control were recruited. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire (OSDI), best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, fundus examination, Schirmer test type 1, tear break-up time test (tBUT), evaluation of conjunctival hyperemia, corneal staining, and tear film osmolarity test. RESULTS: The OSDI score was higher in the post-COVID-19 group in the quantitative and qualitative analysis (P < 0.001 and P =0.012, respectively). The mean tBUT in post-COVID-19 patients was 6.95 ± 4.07 seconds compared with a mean tBUT of 10.12 ± 3.90 seconds in the control group. The post-COVID-19 group showed a higher number of patients with a simultaneous impairment of the OSDI score and tBUT (P = 0.019). The Schirmer test results were strikingly significant both in the quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis (P <0.001 and P = 0.0014, respectively). Both quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis revealed a significant difference in tear osmolarity in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the ocular surface assessment of post-COVID-19 patients with heathy control, a statistically significant increase of dry eye disease has emerged both in subjective and objective evaluations. Our clinical results support the findings that suggested a susceptibility of the ocular surface to the virus, and it underlines the importance of the ocular surface assessment in post-COVID-19 patients for a correct diagnosis and therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osmolar Concentration , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/etiology , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Tears/chemistry , Tears/physiology , Visual Acuity/physiology
13.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760936

ABSTRACT

The ability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2's) to cause multi-organ ischemia and coronavirus-induced posterior segment eye diseases in mammals gave concern about potential sight-threatening ischemia in post coronavirus disease 2019 patients. The radial peripapillary capillary plexus (RPCP) is a sensitive target due to the important role in the vascular supply of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Eighty patients one month after SARS-CoV-2 infection and 30 healthy patients were selected to undergo structural OCT (optical coherence tomography) and OCTA (optical coherence tomography angiography) exams. Primary outcome was a difference in RPCP perfusion density (RPCP-PD) and RPCP flow index (RPCP-FI). No significant difference was observed in age, sex, intraocular pressure (IOP) and prevalence of myopia. RPCP-PD was lower in post SARS-CoV-2 patients compared to controls. Within the post-COVID-19 group, patients with systemic arterial hypertension had lower RPCP-FI and age was inversely correlated to both RPCP-FI and RPCP-PD. Patients treated with lopinavir + ritonavir or antiplatelet therapy during admission had lower RPCP-FI and RPCP-PD. RNFL average thickness was linearly correlated to RPCP-FI and RPCP-PD within post-COVID-19 group. Future studies will be needed to address the hypothesis of a microvascular retinal impairment in individuals who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

14.
J Ophthalmol ; 2020: 5350494, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751452

ABSTRACT

Some reports described a possible ritonavir-related retinal toxicity. The objective of this research was to review and analyze previous studies conducted on ritonavir administration and retinal impairment in a narrative synthesis. PubMed was used to perform a systematic review of ritonavir effects and retinal damage. All studies up to December 2019 were considered. Seven single cases and one case series, reporting a total of 10 patients affected by retinal changes secondary to long-term ritonavir treatment, were included in the review. Variable degrees of outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium changes were detected in most of the patients, with two patients showing macular telangiectasia, four patients presenting intraretinal crystal deposits, two patients disclosing a bull's eye maculopathy, and two patients revealing midperipheral bone spicule-like pigment changes. In the present study, we hypothesized that the use of ritonavir in life-saving treatments of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia might expose these patients to the risk of developing a retinotoxicity. We aimed to alert ophthalmologists on the importance of recognizing ritonavir-induced retinal impairment in SARS-CoV-2 patients. These findings are the target for personalized medicine.

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