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Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 821777, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822378


Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. The microbes inhabiting the oral cavity and gut might play crucial roles in maintaining a favorable gut environment, and their relationship with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and severity is yet to be fully explored. This study investigates the diversity and species richness of gut and oral microbiota of patients with COVID-19, and their possible implications toward the severity of the patient's illness and clinical outcomes. Seventy-four (n = 74) clinical samples (gut and oral) were collected from 22 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with various clinical conditions and 15 apparently healthy people (served as controls). This amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing study yielded 1,866,306 paired-end reads that were mapped to 21 phyla and 231 classified genera of bacteria. Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed a distinct dysbiosis of the gut and oral microbial communities in patients with COVID-19, compared to healthy controls. We report that SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly reduced richness and evenness in the gut and oral microbiomes despite showing higher unique operational taxonomic units in the gut. The gut samples of the patients with COVID-19 included 46 opportunistic bacterial genera. Escherichia, Shigella, and Bacteroides were detected as the signature genera in the gut of patients with COVID-19 with diarrhea, whereas a relatively higher abundance of Streptococcus was found in patients with COVID-19 having breathing difficulties and sore throat (BDST). The patients with COVID-19 had a significantly lower abundance of Prevotella in the oral cavity, compared to healthy controls and patients with COVID-19 without diabetes, respectively. The altered metabolic pathways, including a reduction in biosynthesis capabilities of the gut and oral microbial consortia after SARS-CoV-2 infection, were also observed. The present study may, therefore, shed light on interactions of SARS-CoV-2 with resilient oral and gut microbes which might contribute toward developing microbiome-based diagnostics and therapeutics for this deadly pandemic disease.

BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1079, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463249


BACKGROUND: The safety of health care workers (HCWs) in Bangladesh and the factors associated with getting COVID-19 have been infrequently studied. The aim of this study was to address this gap by assessing the capacity development and safety measures of HCWs in Bangladesh who have been exposed to COVID-19 and by identifying the factors associated with respondents' self-reported participation in capacity development trainings and their safety practices. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on an online survey of 811 HCWs working at 39 dedicated COVID-19 hospitals in Bangladesh. A pretested structured questionnaire consisting of questions related to respondents' characteristics, capacity development trainings and safety measures was administered. Binary logistic regressions were run to assess the association between explanatory and dependent variables. RESULTS: Among the respondents, 58.1% had been engaged for at least 2 months in COVID-19 care, with 56.5% of them attending capacity development training on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), 44.1% attending training on hand hygiene, and 35% attending training on respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. Only 18.1% reported having read COVID-19-related guidelines. Approximately 50% of the respondents claimed that there was an inadequate supply of PPE for hospitals and HCWs. Almost 60% of the respondents feared a high possibility of becoming COVID-19-positive. Compared to physicians, support staff [odds ratio (OR) 4.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.25-8.51] and medical technologists (OR 8.77, 95% CI 3.14-24.47) were more exhausted from working in COVID-19 care. Respondents with longer duty rosters were more exhausted, and those who were still receiving infection prevention and control (IPC) trainings were less exhausted (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86). Those who read COVID-19 guidelines perceived a lower risk of being infected by COVID-19 (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.29-0.67). Compared to the respondents who strongly agreed that hospitals had a sufficient supply of PPE, others who disagreed (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.31-5.51) and strongly disagreed (OR 5.05, 95% CI 2.15-11.89) had a higher apprehension of infection by COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The findings indicated a need for necessary support, including continuous training, a reasonable duty roster, timely diagnosis of patients, and an adequate supply of quality PPE.

COVID-19 , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 2031-2038, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893726


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study investigated the clinical manifestations, outcomes and long-term complications of COVID-19 inpatients in southern part of Bangladesh while emphasizing on individuals having diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a sample of COVID-19 inpatients across four different hospitals of Bangladesh between April 1and June 30, 2020. Variation in clinical characteristics, contact history, comorbidities, treatment patterns, and immediate post COVID complications were investigated. RESULTS: There were 734 COVID-19 presentations in this study of which 19.8% of patients had diabetes and 76% of the COVID-19 patients were male. Among biochemical parameters, plasma glucose, D-dimer, and Troponin-I levels were significantly elevated amidst the cohort with diabetes. The frequency of patients requiring insulin increased threefold during infection with SARS CoV-2. 1.4% patients developed new onset of diabetes mellitus. A number of COVID-19 patients with diabetes have been suffering from complications post-recovery including pain, discomfort, and sleep disturbance. CONCLUSION: Individuals with diabetes have experienced a severe manifestation of COVID-19 and post disease complications. Further in-depth studies focused on larger sample sizes are entailed to assess the relationships elaborately.

COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Recovery of Function/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult