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Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(3): 19, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100995


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an updated discussion on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and radiographic features, mechanisms, associations and epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Headache is common in PRES, though headache associated with PRES was not identified as a separate entity in the 2018 International Classification of Headache Disorders. Here, we review the relevant literature and suggest criteria for consideration of its inclusion. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 has been identified as a potential risk factor for PRES, with a prevalence of 1-4% in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoing neuroimaging, thus making a discussion of its identification and treatment particularly timely given the ongoing global pandemic at the time of this writing. PRES is a neuro-clinical syndrome with specific imaging findings. The clinical manifestations of PRES include headache, seizures, encephalopathy, visual disturbances, and focal neurologic deficits. Associations with PRES include renal failure, preeclampsia and eclampsia, autoimmune conditions, and immunosuppression. PRES is theorized to be a syndrome of disordered autoregulation and endothelial dysfunction resulting in preferential hyperperfusion of the posterior circulation. Treatment typically focuses on treating the underlying cause and removal of the offending agents.

Endothelium/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Aminolevulinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Eclampsia/epidemiology , Female , Homeostasis/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/epidemiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/therapy , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology
Headache ; 61(3): 412-413, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085288
Headache ; 60(8): 1806-1811, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642109


OBJECTIVE: To summarize for the trainee audience the possible mechanisms of headache in patients with COVID-19 as well as to outline the impact of the pandemic on patients with headache disorders and headache medicine in clinical practice. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, of which a large subset of patients features neurological symptoms, commonly headache. The virus is highly contagious and is, therefore, changing clinical practice by forcing limitations on in-person visits and procedural treatments, more quickly shifting toward the widespread adaptation of telemedicine services. DESIGN/RESULTS: We review what is currently known about the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and how it relates to possible mechanisms of headache, including indirect, potential direct, and secondary causes. Alternative options for the treatment of patients with headache disorders and the use of telemedicine are also explored. CONCLUSIONS: Limited information exists regarding the mechanisms and timing of headache in patients with COVID-19, though causes relate to plausible direct viral invasion of the nervous system as well as the cytokine release syndrome. Though headache care in the COVID-19 era requires alterations, the improved preventive treatment options now available and evidence for feasibility and safety of telemedicine well positions clinicians to take care of such patients, especially in the COVID-19 epicenter of New York City.

COVID-19/complications , Education, Medical, Continuing , Headache Disorders, Secondary/etiology , Neurology/education , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged, 80 and over , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache Disorders, Secondary/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/etiology , Migraine Disorders/complications , Migraine Disorders/prevention & control , Migraine Disorders/therapy , New York City/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Telemedicine