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1.
J Control Release ; 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562303

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of RNA-based vaccines has been recently demonstrated, leading to the use of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. The application of self-amplifying mRNA within these formulations may offer further enhancement to these vaccines, as self-amplifying mRNA replicons enable longer expression kinetics and more potent immune responses compared to non-amplifying mRNAs. To investigate the impact of administration route on RNA-vaccine potency, we investigated the immunogenicity of a self-amplifying mRNA encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein encapsulated in different nanoparticle platforms (solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) and lipid nanoparticles (LNPs)). These were administered via three different routes: intramuscular, intradermal and intranasal. Our studies in a mouse model show that the immunogenicity of our 4 different saRNA vaccine formulations after intramuscular or intradermal administration was initially comparable; however, ionizable LNPs gave higher long-term IgG responses. The clearance of all 4 of the nanoparticle formulations from the intramuscular or intradermal administration site was similar. In contrast, immune responses generated after intranasal was low and coupled with rapid clearance for the administration site, irrespective of the formulation. These results demonstrate that both the administration route and delivery system format dictate self-amplifying RNA vaccine efficacy.

3.
Vaccine X ; 7: 100084, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386131

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious diseases continue to cause significant impact on human health. Vaccines are instrumental in preventing infectious diseases and mitigating pandemics and epidemics. SARS-CoV-2 is the most recent example of an urgent pandemic that requires the development of vaccines. This study combined real-world data and geospatial visualization techniques to demonstrate methods to monitor and communicate the uptake and impact of existing and new vaccines. Methods: Observational data of existing pediatric rotavirus vaccines were used as an example. A large US national insurance claims database was accessed to build an analytic dataset for a 20-year period (1996-2017). For each week and multiple geographic scales, animated spatial and non-spatial visualization techniques were applied to demonstrate changes in seasonal rotavirus epidemic curves and population-based disease rates before, during, and after vaccine introduction in 2006. The geographic scales included national, state, county and zip code tabulation areas. An online web-based digital atlas was built to display either continuous or snapshot visualizations of disease patterns, vaccine uptake, and improved health outcomes after vaccination (http://www.mapvaccines.com). Results: Over 17 million zip code-weeks of data were available for analysis. The animations show geospatial patterns of rotavirus-related medical encounter rates peaking every year from November - February prior to vaccine availability in 2006. Visualizations showed increasing vaccination coverage rates at all geographic scales over time. Declines in medical encounter rates accelerated as vaccination coverage rapidly increased after 2010. The data maps also identified geographic hotspots with low vaccination rates and persistent disease rates. Conclusion: This project developed novel web-based methods to communicate location and time-based vaccine uptake and the related reduction in medical visits due to viral infection. Future applications of the visualization could be used by health agencies to monitor known or novel disease patterns over time in conjunction with close assessment of current and future vaccine utilization.

4.
Vaccine ; 39(20): 2731-2735, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193499

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly affected utilization of preventative health care, including vaccines. We aimed to assess HPV vaccination rates during the pandemic, and conduct a simulation model-based analysis to estimate the impact of current coverage and future pandemic recovery scenarios on disease outcomes. The model population included females and males of all ages in the US. The model compares pre-COVID vaccine uptake to 3 reduced coverage scenarios with varying recovery speed. Vaccine coverage was obtained from Truven Marketscan™. Substantially reduced coverage between March-August 2020 was observed compared to 2018-2019. The model predicted that 130,853 to 213,926 additional cases of genital warts; 22,503 to 48,157 cases of CIN1; 48,682 to 110,192 cases of CIN2/3; and 2,882 to 6,487 cases of cervical cancer will occur over the next 100 years, compared to status quo. Providers should plan efforts to recover HPV vaccination and minimize potential long-term consequences.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
5.
Injury ; 51(12): 2731-2733, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-847103
6.
Vaccine ; 39(8): 1201-1204, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home orders have caused an unprecedented decrease in the administration of routinely recommended vaccines. However, the impact of this decrease on overall vaccination coverage in a specific birth cohort is not known. METHODS: We projected measles vaccination coverage for the cohort of children becoming one year old in 2020 in the United States, for different durations of stay-at-home orders, along with varying catch-up vaccination efforts. RESULTS: A 15% sustained catch-up rate outside stay-at-home orders (compared to what would be expected via natality information) may be necessary to achieve projected vaccination coverage similar to previous years. Permanent decreases in vaccine administration could lead to projected vaccination coverage levels below 80%. CONCLUSION: Modeling measles vaccination coverage under a range of scenarios provides useful information about the potential magnitude and impact of under-immunization. Sustained catch-up efforts are needed to assure that measles vaccination coverage remains high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Vaccination Coverage , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Measles/prevention & control , United States
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