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1.
LANCET ; 399(10342):2212-2225, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935221

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccination of children and young people against SARS-CoV-2 is recommended in some countries. Scarce data have been published on immune responses induced by COVID-19 vaccines in people younger than 18 years compared with the same data that are available in adults. Methods COV006 is a phase 2, single-blind, randomised, controlled trial of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) in children and adolescents at four trial sites in the UK. Healthy participants aged 6-17 years, who did not have a history of chronic respiratory conditions, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, or previously received capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (the control), were randomly assigned to four groups (4:1:4:1) to receive two intramuscular doses of 5 x 10(1)degrees viral particles of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or control, 28 days or 84 days apart. Participants, clinical investigators, and the laboratory team were masked to treatment allocation. Study groups were stratified by age, and participants aged 12-17 years were enrolled before those aged 6-11 years. Due to the restrictions in the use of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in people younger than 30 years that were introduced during the study, only participants aged 12-17 years who were randomly assigned to the 28-day interval group had received their vaccinations at the intended interval (day 28). The remaining participants received their second dose at day 112. The primary outcome was assessment of safety and tolerability in the safety population, which included all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. The secondary outcome was immunogenicity, which was assessed in participants who were seronegative to the nucleocapsid protein at baseline and received both prime and boost vaccine. This study is registered with ISRCTN (15638344). Findings Between Feb 15 and April 2, 2021, 262 participants (150 [57%] participants aged 12-17 years and 112 [43%] aged 6-11 years;due to the change in the UK vaccination policy, the study terminated recruitment of the younger age group before the planned number of participants had been enrolled) were randomly assigned to receive vaccination with two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=211 [n=105 at day 28 and n=106 at day 84]) or control (n=51 [n=26 at day 28 and n=25 at day 84]). One participant in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 day 28 group in the younger age bracket withdrew their consent before receiving a first dose. Of the participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 169 (80%) of 210 participants reported at least one solicited local or systemic adverse event up to 7 days following the first dose, and 146 (76%) of 193 participants following the second dose. No serious adverse events related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 administration were recorded by the data cutoff date on Oct 28, 2021. Of the participants who received at least one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, there were 128 unsolicited adverse events up to 28 days after vaccination reported by 83 (40%) of 210 participants. One participant aged 6-11 years receiving ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 reported a grade 4 fever of 40.2 degrees C on day 1 following first vaccination, which resolved within 24 h. Pain and tenderness were the most common local solicited adverse events for all the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and capsular group B meningococcal groups following both doses. Of the 242 participants with available serostatus data, 14 (6%) were seropositive at baseline. Serostatus data were not available for 20 (8%) of 262 participants. Among seronegative participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and pseudoneutralising antibody titres at day 28 after the second dose were higher in participants aged 12-17 years with a longer interval between doses (geometric means of 73 371 arbitrary units [AU]/mL [95% CI 58 685-91 733] and 299 half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC 50;95% CI 230-390]) compared with those aged 12-17 years who received their vaccines 28 days apart (43 280 AU/mL [95% CI 35 852-52 246] and 150 IC 50 [95% CI 116-194]). Humoral responses were higher in those aged 6-11 years than in those aged 12-17 years receiving their second dose at the same 112-day interval (geometric mean ratios 1.48 [95% CI 1.07-2.07] for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 2.96 [1.89-4.62] for pseudoneutralising antibody titres). Cellular responses peaked after a first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 across all age and interval groups and remained above baseline after a second vaccination. Interpretation ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is well tolerated and immunogenic in children aged 6-17 years, inducing concentrations of antibody that are similar to those associated with high efficacy in phase 3 studies in adults. No safety concerns were raised in this trial. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

2.
Internal Medicine Journal ; 51(SUPPL 4):11, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1583534

ABSTRACT

Background: Since 2019 the National Allergy Strategy (NAS) 250K youth project has run annual camps to support school-aged teens living with severe allergies. In 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic presented several challenges for conducting camps. To reduce the risk of potential COVID-19 exposure, the NAS conducted a 250K fun day for school-aged teens, supported by local peer mentors, staff and volunteers. This study compares confidence levels for a range of allergy based self-management indicators, between the fun day and camp offerings. Method: The 250K fun day was held in Perth, Western Australia, in February 2021. Perth-based NAS staff and volunteer health professionals attended. School-aged teens and peer mentors from Perth were invited to participate. Several meetings with volunteers and catering staff were held prior. Findings: Fourteen school-aged teens with severe allergies and 1 peer mentor participated in the fun day, and 14 school-aged teens and 8 peer mentors participated in the 2020 camp. Confidence levels were measured using a participant survey. Table 1 provides a comparison of the results of the 2021 fun day and the 2020 camp. Conclusion: The 250K fun day helped connect young people with food allergy. The fun day as a one-day event substantially improved confidence levels in allergy self-management, however, did not increase confidence to the same level as the 2020 camp. Should COVID-19 continue to restrict access to camps, the fun day model represents a good option to engage youth and still provide significant benefit to participants.

4.
Journal of Molecular Diagnostics ; 22(11):S33-S33, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1070253
5.
Exposure of humans or animals to SARS CoV ; 2(72), 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1005717

ABSTRACT

This work describes of the risk of human or animal exposure to SARS-CoV-2 through contact with, handling or consumption of wild, domestic and aquatic animal species or their products;current knowledge gaps regarding the zoonotic origin or animal-human spillover of SARS-CoV-2 and recommendations for priority studies;evidence for SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility of different animal species;evidence-based recommendations on how to prioritize animal species for targeted field investigations or research studies and recommendations for targeted One Health investigations and epidemiological, laboratory, anthropological or seasonality studies to fill critical knowledge gaps. Understanding the risk of exposure of humans or animals to SARS-CoV-2 from animals and their products is essential for containing virus spread, prioritizing research, protecting food systems and informing national One Health investigations and mitigation measures.

6.
Medicine (Abingdon, England : UK Ed.) ; (1357-3039 (Print))2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-850319

ABSTRACT

Some newly emerging viral lung infections have the potential to cause large outbreaks of severe respiratory disease amongst humans. In this contribution we discuss infections by influenza A (H5N1), SARS and Hanta virus. The H5N1 subtype of avian influenza (bird flu) has crossed the species barrier and causes severe illness in humans. So far, 328 humans in twelve countries have contracted the disease and 200 have died. The young are particularly affected. Oseltamivir is the antiviral drug of choice and should be given as early as possible. Patients require supportive care, often including invasive ventilation. If H5N1 develops the ability to transmit efficiently between humans, an influenza pandemic is likely. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was first seen in China in 2002. The outbreak was finally contained in 2003, by which time 8098 probable SARS cases had been identified with at least 774 deaths. The virus was identified in 2003 as belonging to the coronaviridae family. SARS is transmitted between humans and clusters have been seen. The mainstay of treatment is supportive. Various antiviral agents and adjunctive therapies were tried but none were conclusively effective. Hanta virus is an emerging cause of viral lung disease. In 1993, a new species of Hanta virus was recognized, after an outbreak of a new rapidly progressive pulmonary syndrome in the US, 465 cases of ‘Sin Nombre’ virus have now been seen in the US with a mortality rate of 35%. Many of the confirmed cases had contact with rodents (the major host of hanta viruses). Treatment is supportive, as there is no specific therapy. FAU - Roberts, Helen

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