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2.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103934, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 lineages are continuously evolving. As of December 2021, the AY.4.2 Delta sub-lineage represented 20 % of sequenced strains in the UK and had been detected in dozens of countries. It has since then been supplanted by Omicron. The AY.4.2 spike displays three additional mutations (T95I, Y145H and A222V) in the N-terminal domain when compared to the original Delta variant (B.1.617.2) and remains poorly characterized. METHODS: We compared the Delta and the AY.4.2 spikes, by assessing their binding to antibodies and ACE2 and their fusogenicity. We studied the sensitivity of an authentic AY.4.2 viral isolate to neutralizing antibodies. FINDINGS: The AY.4.2 spike exhibited similar binding to all the antibodies and sera tested, and similar fusogenicity and binding to ACE2 than the ancestral Delta spike. The AY.4.2 virus was slightly less sensitive than Delta to neutralization by a panel of monoclonal antibodies; noticeably, the anti-RBD Imdevimab showed incomplete neutralization. Sensitivity of AY.4.2 to sera from vaccinated individuals was reduced by 1.3 to 3-fold, when compared to Delta. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that mutations in the NTD remotely impair the efficacy of anti-RBD antibodies. The spread of AY.4.2 was not due to major changes in spike fusogenicity or ACE2 binding, but more likely to a partially reduced neutralization sensitivity. FUNDING: The work was funded by Institut Pasteur, Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, Urgence COVID-19 Fundraising Campaign of Institut Pasteur, ANRS, the Vaccine Research Institute, Labex IBEID, ANR/FRM Flash Covid PROTEO-SARS-CoV-2 and IDISCOVR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306787

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 induces a humoral response with seroconversion occurring within the first weeks after COVID-19 disease. Those antibodies exert a neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, whose evolution overtime after COVID-19 is however unknown.Methods: In this monocentric prospective study, sera of 107 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were collected at 3 months and 6 months post-infection. We performed quantitative neutralization experiments on top of high-throughput serological assays evaluating anti-Spike (S) and anti-Nucleocapsid (NP) IgG.Findings: Levels of sero-neutralization decreased significantly over study time, as well as IgG rates. After 6 months, 2.8% of the patients had a negative serological status for both anti-S and anti-NP IgG. However, all sera had a persistent and effective neutralizing effect on SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing assays. IgG levels correlated with sero-neutralization and this correlation was stronger for anti-S than for anti-NP antibodies. The level of sero-neutralization quantified at 6 months correlated with markers of initial severity, notably admission in intensive care units and the need for mechanical invasive ventilation.Interpretation: Decrease of IgG rates and serological assays becoming negative did not imply loss of neutralizing capacity in our patients. Those results are encouraging and in favor of sustained humoral response for at least 6 months in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19, which will have to be considered in global deployment of vaccination strategy.Trial Registration: The French Covid cohort (NCT04262921)Funding Statement: The French COVID cohort is funding by the REACTing (REsearch & ACtion emergING infectious diseases) consortium and by a grant of the French Ministry of Health (PHRC n°20-0424).Outside the submitted work, JSH is supported by AP-HP, INSERM, the French National Research Agency (NADHeart ANR-17-CE17-0015-02, PACIFIC ANR-18-CE14-0032-01, CORRECT_LMNA ANR-19-CE17-0013-02), the ERA-Net-CVD (ANR-16-ECVD-0011-03, Clarify project), Fédération Française de Cardiologie, the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, and by a grant from the Leducq Foundation (18CVD05), and is coordinating a French PIA Project (2018-PSPC-07, PACIFIC-preserved, BPIFrance) and a University Research Federation against heart failure (FHU2019, PREVENT_Heart Failure). JG reports personal fees from ViiV Healthcare, Gilead Science, Janssen Cilag, and research grants from Gilead Sciences, MSD and ViiV Healthcare, outside the submitted work.Declaration of Interests: Authors have nothing to disclose. There are no relationships with industry.Ethics Approval Statement: The French Covid cohort (NCT04262921) is a prospective multi-center observational cohort sponsored by Inserm which was authorized by the French Ethics Committee CPP Ile-de-France VI (ID RCB:2020-A00256-33).

4.
Am J Transplant ; 2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685185

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients may experience prolonged viral shedding after their initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, symptomatic relapses after remission currently remain rare. We herein describe a severe COVID-19 relapse case of a kidney transplant recipient (KTR) following rituximab therapy, 3 months after a moderate COVID-19 infection, despite viral clearance after recovery of the first episode. During the clinical relapse, the diagnosis was established on a broncho-alveolar lavage specimen (BAL) by RT-PCR. The infectivity of the BAL sample was confirmed on a cell culture assay. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the presence of an identical stain (Clade 20A). However, it had an acquired G142D mutation and a larger deletion of 3-amino-acids at position 143-145. These mutations located within the N-terminal domain are suggested to play a role in viral entry. The diagnosis of a COVID-19 relapse should be considered in the setting of unexplained persistent fever and/or respiratory symptoms in KTRs (especially for those after rituximab therapy), even in patients with previous negative naso-pharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 15-30% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic tissue injury, and/or multi-organ failure leading to death in around 45% of cases. There is a clear need for biomarkers which quantify tissue injury, predict clinical outcomes and guide the clinical management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We herein report the quantification by droplet-based digital PCR (ddPCR) of the SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and the plasmatic release of a ubiquitous human intracellular marker, the ribonuclease P (RNase P) in order to evaluate tissue injury and cell lysis in the plasma of 139 COVID-19 hospitalized patients at admission. RESULTS: We confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was associated with clinical severity of COVID-19 patients. In addition, we showed that plasmatic RNase P RNAemia at admission was also highly correlated with disease severity (P<0.001) and invasive mechanical ventilation status (P<0.001) but not with pulmonary severity. Altogether, these results indicate a consequent cell lysis process in severe and critical patients but not systematically due to lung cell death. Finally, the plasmatic RNase P RNA value was also significantly associated with overall survival. CONCLUSION: Viral and ubiquitous blood biomarkers monitored by ddPCR could be useful for the clinical monitoring and the management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Moreover, these results could pave the way for new and more personalized circulating biomarkers in COVID-19, and more generally in infectious diseases, specific from each patient organ injury profile.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2890-e2897, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health problem that has already caused more than 662 000 deaths worldwide. Although the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are dominated by respiratory symptoms, some patients present other severe damage such as cardiovascular, renal and liver injury, and/or multiple organ failure, suggesting a spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in blood. Recent ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology now allows absolute quantification of nucleic acids in plasma. We intend to use the droplet-based digital PCR technology to obtain sensitive detection and precise quantification of plasma SARS-CoV-2 viral load (SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive COVID-19 patients with pneumonia 8 to 12 days after onset of symptoms and 12 healthy controls were analyzed. Disease severity was categorized as mild to moderate in 17 patients, severe in 16, and critical in 26. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was quantified by droplet digital Crystal Digital PCR next-generation technology (Stilla Technologies, Villejuif, France). RESULTS: Overall, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was detected in 43 (74.1%) patients. Prevalence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia correlated with disease severity, ranging from 53% in mild-to-moderate patients to 88% in critically ill patients (P = .036). Levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia were associated with severity (P = .035). Among 9 patients who experienced clinical deterioration during follow-up, 8 had positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at baseline, whereas only 1 critical patient with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at the time of analysis died at day 27. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia measured by droplet-based digital PCR constitutes a promising prognosis biomarker in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Humans , RNA, Viral , Severity of Illness Index
7.
EBioMedicine ; 73: 103637, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant shedding and immune responses at the nasal mucosa remain poorly characterised. METHODS: We measured infectious viral release, antibodies and cytokines in 426 PCR+ nasopharyngeal swabs from individuals harboring non-alpha or alpha variants. FINDINGS: With both lineages, viral titers were variable, ranging from 0 to >106 infectious units. Rapid antigenic diagnostic tests were positive in 94% of samples with infectious virus. 68 % of individuals carried infectious virus within two days after onset of symptoms. This proportion decreased overtime. Viable virus was detected up to 14 days. Samples containing anti-spike IgG or IgA did not generally harbor infectious virus. Ct values were slightly but not significantly lower with alpha. This variant was characterized by a fast decrease of infectivity overtime and a marked release of 13 cytokines (including IFN-b, IP-10 and IL-10). INTERPRETATION: The alpha variant displays modified viral decay and cytokine profiles at the nasopharyngeal mucosae during symptomatic infection. FUNDING: This retrospective study has been funded by Institut Pasteur, ANRS, Vaccine Research Institute, Labex IBEID, ANR/FRM and IDISCOVR, Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1337-e1344, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs within the first weeks after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Those antibodies exert a neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, whose evolution over time after COVID-19 as well as efficiency against novel variants are poorly characterized. METHODS: In this prospective study, sera of 107 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were collected at 3 and 6 months postinfection. We performed quantitative neutralization experiments on top of high-throughput serological assays evaluating anti-spike (S) and anti-nucleocapsid (NP) immunoglobulin G (IgG). RESULTS: Levels of seroneutralization and IgG rates against the ancestral strain decreased significantly over time. After 6 months, 2.8% of the patients had a negative serological status for both anti-S and anti-NP IgG. However, all sera had a persistent and effective neutralizing effect against SARS-CoV-2. IgG levels correlated with seroneutralization, and this correlation was stronger for anti-S than for anti-NP antibodies. The level of seroneutralization quantified at 6 months correlated with markers of initial severity, notably admission to intensive care units and the need for mechanical invasive ventilation. In addition, sera collected at 6 months were tested against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and showed efficient neutralizing effects against the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants but significantly weaker activity against the B.1.351 variant. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in IgG rates and serological assays becoming negative did not imply loss of neutralizing capacity. Our results indicate a sustained humoral response against the ancestral strain and the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants for at least 6 months in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19. A weaker protection was, however, observed for the B.1.351 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab369, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352260

ABSTRACT

Cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) acquisition after vaccination with BNT162b2 have been described, but the risk of secondary transmission from fully vaccinated individuals remains ill defined. Herein we report a confirmed transmission of SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant (B.1.1.7) from a symptomatic immunocompetent woman 4 weeks after her second dose of BNT162b2, despite antispike seroconversion.

11.
Nature ; 596(7871): 276-280, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301174

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 lineage was identified in October 2020 in India1-5. Since then, it has become dominant in some regions of India and in the UK, and has spread to many other countries6. The lineage includes three main subtypes (B1.617.1, B.1.617.2 and B.1.617.3), which contain diverse mutations in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that may increase the immune evasion potential of these variants. B.1.617.2-also termed the Delta variant-is believed to spread faster than other variants. Here we isolated an infectious strain of the Delta variant from an individual with COVID-19 who had returned to France from India. We examined the sensitivity of this strain to monoclonal antibodies and to antibodies present in sera from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 (hereafter referred to as convalescent individuals) or who had received a COVID-19 vaccine, and then compared this strain with other strains of SARS-CoV-2. The Delta variant was resistant to neutralization by some anti-NTD and anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies, including bamlanivimab, and these antibodies showed impaired binding to the spike protein. Sera collected from convalescent individuals up to 12 months after the onset of symptoms were fourfold less potent against the Delta variant relative to the Alpha variant (B.1.1.7). Sera from individuals who had received one dose of the Pfizer or the AstraZeneca vaccine had a barely discernible inhibitory effect on the Delta variant. Administration of two doses of the vaccine generated a neutralizing response in 95% of individuals, with titres three- to fivefold lower against the Delta variant than against the Alpha variant. Thus, the spread of the Delta variant is associated with an escape from antibodies that target non-RBD and RBD epitopes of the spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Immune Evasion/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , France , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1337-e1344, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs within the first weeks after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Those antibodies exert a neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, whose evolution over time after COVID-19 as well as efficiency against novel variants are poorly characterized. METHODS: In this prospective study, sera of 107 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were collected at 3 and 6 months postinfection. We performed quantitative neutralization experiments on top of high-throughput serological assays evaluating anti-spike (S) and anti-nucleocapsid (NP) immunoglobulin G (IgG). RESULTS: Levels of seroneutralization and IgG rates against the ancestral strain decreased significantly over time. After 6 months, 2.8% of the patients had a negative serological status for both anti-S and anti-NP IgG. However, all sera had a persistent and effective neutralizing effect against SARS-CoV-2. IgG levels correlated with seroneutralization, and this correlation was stronger for anti-S than for anti-NP antibodies. The level of seroneutralization quantified at 6 months correlated with markers of initial severity, notably admission to intensive care units and the need for mechanical invasive ventilation. In addition, sera collected at 6 months were tested against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and showed efficient neutralizing effects against the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants but significantly weaker activity against the B.1.351 variant. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in IgG rates and serological assays becoming negative did not imply loss of neutralizing capacity. Our results indicate a sustained humoral response against the ancestral strain and the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants for at least 6 months in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19. A weaker protection was, however, observed for the B.1.351 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
13.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(1): 296-299, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009200

ABSTRACT

We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient, treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for a B-cell lymphoma previously treated by autologous stem cell transplant. He suffered from chronic COVID19 and we monitored by plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA by highly sensitive droplet-based digital PCR technology (ddPCR). Under tocilizumab therapy and despite a first clinical improvement biologically associated with decreasing inflammatory markers, a slight increase of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia quantified by ddPCR was highlighted, confirming the absence of viral efficacy of this treatment and predicting the subsequent observed deterioration. As expected, his complete recovery, finally achieved after COVID-19 convalescent plasmatherapy, strictly paralleled plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance. With these results, we confirmed the interest of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia monitoring by ddPCR in COVID-19 patients, particularly during treatment, and firstly showed that this new and specific biomarker could be helpful to select eligible patient for anti-IL6 receptors therapy considering the variable levels of efficacy recently observed with such therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Lymphocytes/virology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/complications , Lymphoma, B-Cell/genetics , Lymphoma, B-Cell/virology , RNA, Viral/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load/drug effects
14.
Clin. Infect. Dis. ; 20200817.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-719223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health problem that has already caused more than 662,000 deaths worldwide. Although the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are dominated by respiratory symptoms, some patients present other severe damage such as cardiovascular, renal and liver injury or/and multiple organ failure, suggesting a spread of the SARS-CoV-2 in blood. Recent ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology now allows absolute quantification of nucleic acids in plasma. We herein intended to use the droplet-based digital PCR technology to obtain sensitive detection and precise quantification of plasma SARS-CoV-2 viral load (SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive COVID-19 patients with pneumonia 8 to 12 days after onset of symptoms and 12 healthy controls were analyzed. Disease severity was categorized as mild-to-moderate in 17 patients, severe in 16 patients and critical in 26 patients. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia was quantified by droplet digital Crystal Digital PCR™ next-generation technology (Stilla Technologies, Villejuif, France). RESULTS: Overall, SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia was detected in 43 (74.1%) patients. Prevalence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia correlated with disease severity, ranging from 53% in mild-to-moderate patients to 88% in critically ill patients (p=0.036). Levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia were associated with severity (p=0.035). Among nine patients who experienced clinical deterioration during follow-up, eight had positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia at baseline while only one critical patient with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia at the time of analysis died at day 27. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia measured by droplet-based digital PCR constitutes a promising prognosis biomarker in COVID-19 patients.

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