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Circulation ; 144(6): e123-e135, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883361


Myocarditis remains a clinical challenge in pediatrics. Originally, it was recognized at autopsy before the application of endomyocardial biopsy, which led to a histopathology-based diagnosis such as in the Dallas criteria. Given the invasive and low-sensitivity nature of endomyocardial biopsy, its diagnostic focus shifted to a reliance on clinical suspicion. With the advances of cardiac magnetic resonance, an examination of the whole heart in vivo has gained acceptance in the pursuit of a diagnosis of myocarditis. The presentation may vary from minimal symptoms to heart failure, life-threatening arrhythmias, or cardiogenic shock. Outcomes span full resolution to chronic heart failure and the need for heart transplantation with inadequate clues to predict the disease trajectory. The American Heart Association commissioned this writing group to explore the current knowledge and management within the field of pediatric myocarditis. This statement highlights advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis, new and shifting dominant pathogeneses, modern laboratory testing, and use of mechanical circulatory support, with a special emphasis on innovations in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Despite these strides forward, we struggle without a universally accepted definition of myocarditis, which impedes progress in disease-targeted therapy.

Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy , Animals , Biopsy , Child , Clinical Decision-Making , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Management , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Humans , Multimodal Imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/mortality , Prognosis , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 86, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292072


BACKGROUND: Cardiac evaluations, including cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and biomarker results, are needed in children during mid-term recovery after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The incidence of CMR abnormalities 1-3 months after recovery is over 50% in older adults and has ranged between 1 and 15% in college athletes. Abnormal cardiac biomarkers are common in adults, even during recovery. METHODS: We performed CMR imaging in a prospectively-recruited pediatric cohort recovered from COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We obtained CMR data and serum biomarkers. We compared these results to age-matched control patients, imaged prior to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: CMR was performed in 17 children (13.9 years, all ≤ 18 years) and 29 age-matched control patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cases were recruited with symptomatic COVID-19 (11/17, 65%) or MIS-C (6/17, 35%) and studied an average of 2 months after diagnosis. All COVID-19 patients had been symptomatic with fever (73%), vomiting/diarrhea (64%), or breathing difficulty (55%) during infection. Left ventricular and right ventricular ejection fractions were indistinguishable between cases and controls (p = 0.66 and 0.70, respectively). Mean native global T1, global T2 values and segmental T2 maximum values were also not statistically different from control patients (p ≥ 0.06 for each). NT-proBNP and troponin levels were normal in all children. CONCLUSIONS: Children prospectively recruited following SARS-CoV-2 infection had normal CMR and cardiac biomarker evaluations during mid-term recovery. Trial Registration Not applicable.

COVID-19/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood