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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac030, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The frequency of asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections is unclear and may be influenced by how symptoms are evaluated. In this study, we sought to determine the frequency of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in a prospective cohort of health care workers (HCWs). METHODS: A prospective cohort of HCWs, confirmed negative for SARS-CoV-2 exposure upon enrollment, were evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 infection by monthly analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as well as referral for polymerase chain reaction testing whenever they exhibited symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Participants completed the standardized and validated FLU-PRO Plus symptom questionnaire scoring viral respiratory disease symptom intensity and frequency at least twice monthly during baseline periods of health and each day they had any symptoms that were different from their baseline. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-three participants were enrolled between August 25 and December 31, 2020. Through February 28, 2021, 12 participants were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptom analysis demonstrated that all 12 had at least mild symptoms of COVID-19, compared with baseline health, near or at time of infection. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in unvaccinated, immunocompetent adults is less common than previously reported. While infectious inoculum doses and patient factors may have played a role in the clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infections in this cohort, we suspect that the high rate of symptomatic disease was due primarily to participant attentiveness to symptoms and collection of symptoms in a standardized, prospective fashion. These results have implications for studies that estimate SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence and for public health measures to control the spread of this virus.

3.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(Supplement_1):S87-S88, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1569757
4.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S87-S88, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564733

ABSTRACT

Background The Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC) established a consolidated COVID-19 screening area (CSA) beginning in March 2020 to provide beneficiary and staff testing via a drive-through site. Testing was available to all patients and WRNMMC staff regardless of beneficiary status. Presented is a descriptive analysis of our testing operations and positivity rates within a closed medical system from March 2020 to April 2021. Methods For quality and process improvement, we compiled daily testing logs from March 2020 to April 2021 from the CSA. These logs included patient demographics, reason for testing, test result, testing platform, and occupational status at the hospital. We determined positivity rates in various subgroups – asymptomatic, symptomatic, pre-operative, in order to track testing use and access. Additionally, we compared the overall positivity rate to the surrounding civilian community by pulling data from the Maryland Department of Health’s COVID database. Results Over the course of nearly 14 months of testing availability, 34,694 beneficiaries were screened with 41,582 individual tests. After May 2020, the monthly overall positivity rate varied from 1.99% to 11.92%, peaking in December 2020 (with high rates in November 2020, 7.52% and January 2021, 9.53%), correlating with or exceeding elevated positivity rates in Montgomery County (November 2020: 4.91%;December 2020: 6.48%;January 2021: 6.51%). When examining only symptomatic individuals, the positivity rate is notably much higher, with monthly rates varying from 6.40% to 21.10%, with a similar peak in December 2020. After full implementation of pre-operative screening for procedures with aerosolization potential in June 2020, the range of positivity rates was 0.28%-1.66%. Since vaccination for COVID-19 became widely available beginning in Feb 2021, the preoperative positivity rate has remained below 0.85%. Conclusion Our institutional experience is unique in its ability to offer universal access to COVID-19 testing for beneficiaries and staff of the DoD under direction of the ID service. Our process serves as a model for public and occupational health response, and may guide lab resource and real-time staffing management in support of COVID-19 diagnostics at a medical center. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):365-366, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564023

ABSTRACT

Background In response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, an emergency use authorization (EUA) was issued for neutralizing antibody therapies including BAM. Licensing trials suggest that use of BAM reduces hospitalizations when compared with placebo (1.6% vs 6.3%). However, the real world impact of BAM is not well-described. In this study, risk factors, outcomes, and hospitalization rates among high-risk outpatients presenting with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 who received BAM were examined. Methods This is a single center retrospective analysis of all patients who received BAM monotherapy between 11/11/2020 and 3/16/2021. Electronic health records were reviewed for baseline demographics, EUA indications, comorbidities, and outcomes to include infusion reactions, hospitalizations, and deaths occurring within 29 days of BAM administration. Moderate COVID-19 was defined as having any infiltrate on chest imaging prior to BAM administration. Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical values as appropriate, and Mann-Whitney U for continuous variables. Results Of the 101 patients who received BAM (median age 64 years;21% black;4% Hispanic;55% male), 13 were subsequently admitted. 22 patients (22%) had moderately severe disease as evidenced by abnormal imaging. Severity on presentation, number of indications for therapy, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and number of co-morbidities were significantly associated with subsequent admission (table 1). No patients had adverse infusion reactions. Of those hospitalized, 8 (61.5%) were for COVID-19, the median duration of hospitalization was 2 days, and 4 received guideline-directed treatment for COVID-19 (table 2). Table 1. Factors Associated with Hospitalization Following Bamlanivimab (BAM) Administration Table 1. (Continued) Factors Associated with Hospitalization Following Bamlanivimab (BAM) Administration Table 2: Characteristics and Resource Utilization of Patients Hospitalized After Bamlanivimab Therapy (n=13) Conclusion In a high-risk population, hospitalization rates were higher than those observed in clinical trials, with 8% of subjects being admitted for COVID-19. Disease severity on presentation, multiple indications for therapy, and the presence of multiple co-morbidities were all associated with subsequent admission. Reassuringly, BAM was well tolerated, and in those requiring admission, hospitalizations were short, resource utilization was low, and there were no deaths. Disclosures Benjamin L. Custer, M.D., Alexion Pharmaceuticals (Shareholder)Armata Pharmaceuticals (Shareholder)Biomarin Pharmaceutical (Shareholder)Crispr Therapeutics (Shareholder)CVS Health Corp (Shareholder)Editas Medicine (Shareholder)Gilead (Shareholder)Glaxo Smith Kline (Shareholder)Hologic Inc (Shareholder)Merck (Shareholder)Mesoblast LTD (Shareholder)Pfizer (Shareholder)Sanofi (Shareholder)Unitedhealth Group (Shareholder)Vertex Pharmaceuticals (Shareholder) Dana M. Blyth, MD, Nothing to disclose

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1450-1456, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389856

ABSTRACT

During the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of a new multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been increasing in Europe and the United States (1-3). Clinical features in children have varied but predominantly include shock, cardiac dysfunction, abdominal pain, and elevated inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 (1). Since June 2020, several case reports have described a similar syndrome in adults; this review describes in detail nine patients reported to CDC, seven from published case reports, and summarizes the findings in 11 patients described in three case series in peer-reviewed journals (4-6). These 27 patients had cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and neurologic symptoms without severe respiratory illness and concurrently received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antibody assays indicating recent infection. Reports of these patients highlight the recognition of an illness referred to here as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A), the heterogeneity of clinical signs and symptoms, and the role for antibody testing in identifying similar cases among adults. Clinicians and health departments should consider MIS-A in adults with compatible signs and symptoms. These patients might not have positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen test results, and antibody testing might be needed to confirm previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because of the temporal association between MIS-A and SARS-CoV-2 infections, interventions that prevent COVID-19 might prevent MIS-A. Further research is needed to understand the pathogenesis and long-term effects of this newly described condition.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1686-1690, 2020 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922984

ABSTRACT

Large indoor gatherings pose a high risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and have the potential to be super-spreading events (1,2). Such events are associated with explosive growth, followed by sustained transmission (3). During August 7-September 14, 2020, the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (MeCDC) investigated a COVID-19 outbreak linked to a wedding reception attended by 55 persons in a rural Maine town. In addition to the community outbreak, secondary and tertiary transmission led to outbreaks at a long-term care facility 100 miles away and at a correctional facility approximately 200 miles away. Overall, 177 COVID-19 cases were epidemiologically linked to the event, including seven hospitalizations and seven deaths (four in hospitalized persons). Investigation revealed noncompliance with CDC's recommended mitigation measures. To reduce transmission, persons should avoid large gatherings, practice physical distancing, wear masks, stay home when ill, and self-quarantine after exposure to a person with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Persons can work with local health officials to increase COVID-19 awareness and determine the best policies for organizing social events to prevent outbreaks in their communities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Residential Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Maine/epidemiology , Male , Marriage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1026-1030, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694883

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is spread from person to person (1-3). Quarantine of exposed persons (contacts) for 14 days following their exposure reduces transmission (4-7). Contact tracing provides an opportunity to identify contacts, inform them of quarantine recommendations, and monitor their symptoms to promptly identify secondary COVID-19 cases (7,8). On March 12, 2020, Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Maine CDC) identified the first case of COVID-19 in the state. Because of resource constraints, including staffing, Maine CDC could not consistently monitor contacts, and automated technological solutions for monitoring contacts were explored. On May 14, 2020, Maine CDC began enrolling contacts of patients with reported COVID-19 into Sara Alert (MITRE Corporation, 2020),* an automated, web-based, symptom monitoring tool. After initial communication with Maine CDC staff members, enrolled contacts automatically received daily symptom questionnaires via their choice of e-mailed weblink, text message, texted weblink, or telephone call until completion of their quarantine. Epidemiologic investigations were conducted for enrollees who reported symptoms or received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. During May 14-June 26, Maine CDC enrolled 1,622 contacts of 614 COVID-19 patients; 190 (11.7%) eventually developed COVID-19, highlighting the importance of identifying, quarantining, and monitoring contacts of COVID-19 patients to limit spread. In Maine, symptom monitoring was not feasible without the use of an automated symptom monitoring tool. Using a tool that permitted enrollees to specify a method of symptom monitoring was well received, because the majority of persons monitored (96.4%) agreed to report using this system.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epidemiological Monitoring , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Automation , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Maine/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Program Evaluation , Symptom Assessment/methods , Young Adult
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