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Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617060

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of acute bronchiolitis. The peak of the infection is historically described in the autumn/winter season. The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic seems to have modified the seasonality of some respiratory viruses. The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed in Portugal was in March 2020. School closure and the use of masks are some of the pointed reasons for a decreased number of RSV infections observed in the autumn/winter season post the beginning of the pandemic. Interestingly, there are now a few studies from around the globe showing the resurgence of RSV infections in the spring/summer season that followed. Aim: To characterize the population of RSV infected infants admitted to a tertiary hospital before and after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive, study was performed. All the RSV infected infants who were admitted to a Portuguese tertiary hospital from January 2017 to August 2021 were evaluated. The diagnosis of RSV infection was made through polymerase chain reaction of nasal secretions. Data such as age, gender, reason for admission, comorbidities, viral coinfection, bacterial superinfection, oxygen therapy, admission at Intensive Care Unit, ventilatory support and length of hospital stay were analyzed. Results: The data of a total of 354 patients was analyzed. The median age was 4 months (min 9 days, max 4 years), 50% were male. Before the COVID-19 pandemics (between 2017 and 2019), the peak of RSV infections used to occur in the months of December and January (medium of 25 and 28 cases per month, respectively). However, in December 2020 and January 2021 there was no detection of RSV. Nonetheless, a peak of RSV infection was verified in July and August 2021 (18 and 15 cases per month, respectively). The number of patients admitted for non-respiratory motifs, but in whom RSV was detected during the course of hospital stay, increased in 2021 (39%), comparing to 2017 (0%), 2018 (3%), 2019 (8%) or 2020 (3%), p<0,05. The number of viral coinfections was higher in 2021 (50%) comparing to 2017 (29%), 2019 (19%) or 2020 (18%), p<0,05. The patients admitted in 2021 were older (12 months average) than patients admitted in 2017 (5 months average) or 2018 (6 months average), p<0,05. Conclusions: RSV seasonality was modified by the COVID-19 pandemic, with an increase of the hospital admissions being registered in the summer of 2021. Our tertiary hospital's numbers reproduce what is being described in other places of the world. Subsequent studies are needed to verify the behavior of RSV infections in the next seasons, to understand if RSV infections are becoming more or less severe and to analyze the impact of SARS-CoV-2 virus on the virulence of RSV.

2.
9th Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems, BRACIS 2020 ; 12319 LNAI:511-520, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-897935

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we explore the fine-grained opinion identification and polarity classification tasks using twitter data on the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazilian Portuguese. We trained machine learning-based classifiers using a few different methods and tested how well they performed different tasks. For polarity classification, we tested a cross-domain strategy in order to measure the performance of the classifiers among different domains. For fine-grained opinion identification, we provide a taxonomy of opinion aspects and employed them in conjunction with machine learning methods. Based on the obtained results, we found that the cross-domain data improved the results of the polarity classification. For fine-grained opinion identification, the use of a domain taxonomy presented competitive results for the Portuguese language. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Pathology ; 13(1):135, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-809552

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious avian disease, of major economic importance spread worldwide. In Brazil the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is widely disseminated in the poultry producing regions, causing economic losses in Brazilian poultry flocks. Case Report: Breeders from Pernambuco, Brazil, from 25 to 58 weeks old had decrease in eggshell quality (deformation and thin bark). Necropsy was performed and fragments of trachea, proventriculus, lungs and tonsil were collected for histopathology and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and cloacal swab also for PCR. Blood was collected for Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) for infectious bronchitis. Results: Necropsy examination revealed no noteworthy change, though the RT-PCR was positive to infectious bronchitis variant BR (in all types of sample) and the immune response geometric mean titers (GMT) was 5846 at 25 weeks and 6040 at 47 weeks for infectious bronchitis. Histopathologically, moderate multifocal lymphoplasmacytic tracheitis with hydropic degeneration and individual necrosis of epithelial cells, moderate multifocal lymphoplasmacytic proventriculitis, moderate multifocal lymphocytic bronchitis and diffuse multifocal lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and lymphoid nodule hyperplasia in the tonsil were observed. Conclusions: In view of molecular diagnosis, immune titration and pathological findings, infectious bronchitis can be confirmed in laying hens from Pernambuco, Brazil.

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