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1.
The New Microbiologica ; 45(1):35, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970830

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and flu may lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of the present study is to compare the incidence of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and outcome in patients with flu and SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in ICU and undergoing ECMO. This study is a retrospective analysis of the San Matteo COVID-19 Registry (SMACORE) cohort. The study was conducted from January 2018 to April 2020. Demographic data and microbiological data were recorded during hospitalization. BSIs occurring during ECMO were analyzed. Eighteen patients treated with ECMO, 22 subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 7 with flu, median age 61years for SARS-CoV-2 and 50 for flu (p=NS). Median ECMO duration was similar in the two pathologies. Median time to bloodstream infection from ECMO initiation was similar. Bloodstream infection incidence rate was 2.65 per 100 patients/days for flu and 2.2 per 100 patients/days for SARS-CoV-2. Global infection rate was 5 per 100 patients/days for SARS-CoV-2 patients and 5.3 per 100 patients/days for flu. Mortality during ECMO was 40.9% (5 out of 22 patients) for SARS-CoV-2 infection while none died among flu patients. ECMO-associated mortality was higher in SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with flu infection.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 157-160, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of a 3-day course of remdesivir to prevent severe disease in patients with COVID-19 who received solid organ transplant (SOT) is unknown. We wanted to study the efficacy of this therapeutic option in patients with COVID-19 who received SOT in preventing both hospitalizations for outpatients and clinical worsening due to COVID-19 for those already hospitalized for other reasons. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective, observational study conducted in the Fondazione IRCSS Policlinico San Matteo of Pavia, Northern Italy. We extracted all the data of patients with COVID-19 receiving SOT who received and did not receive pre-emptive remdesivir between December 23, 2021, and February 26, 2022. We used a Cox proportional hazard model to assess whether receiving pre-emptive remdesivir was associated with lower rates of hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients who received SOT were identified. Among these, seven patients (29, 1%) received pre-emptive remdesivir, whereas 17 (70, 9%) patients did not. Receiving remdesivir significantly reduced the hospitalization rate in outpatients who received SOT and the clinical worsening of the condition of already hospitalized patients who received SOT (hazard ratio 0.05; confidence interval [0.00-0.65], P-value = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In our cohort of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who received SOT, pre-emptive remdesivir was effective in reducing the hospitalization rate due to COVID-19 and in preventing the clinical worsening of the condition of patients who received SOT who were hospitalized for reasons other than COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
3.
Clin Infect Pract ; 15: 100144, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803778

ABSTRACT

Background: Sars-CoV2 can cause severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In COVID-19-associated respiratory failure, lung transplantation might be an option (Bharat A). Case report: A previously healthy 63-year-old man with a nasopharyngeal swab positive for SarsCoV2 and radiological evidence of interstitial lung consolidations developed acute respiratory distress that required intubation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (VV ECMO). Because of no recovery of his lung function, he underwent a bilateral lung transplant. ICU stay was complicated by several episodes of bacterial superinfections and an increase of liver function tests (LFTs). Afterward, he faced a progressive clinical worsening associated to severe anemia, further rise of indices of cholestasis, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperferritinemia. Bone marrow smear showed a picture compatible with haemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH) and first and second line therapy were started. In addition, a transjugular hepatic biopsy was performed with histopathological evidence of portal and periportal fibrosis, compatible with Covid 19-related cholangiopathy. During the hospital stay, he developed several MDR opportunistic infections. The patient died few months later from multiorgan failure secondary to septic shock. A post-mortem confirmed a diagnosis of cholangiopathy, and medullary erythro-haemophagocytosis. Conclusion: Post Covid19 syndrome is a clinical entity that includes novel and old sequelae following recovery from Sars-CoV2 infections. Early identification of these diseases is crucial for adequate management and might influence the long term prognosis of these patients.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325523

ABSTRACT

Objectives: An accurate prediction of the clinical outcomes of European patients requiring hospitalisation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lacking. The aim of the study is to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and discharge in a cohort of Lombardy patients with COVID-19. Methods: All consecutive hospitalised patients from February 21 st to March 30 th , 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 from the IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy, were included. In-hospital mortality and discharge were evaluated by competing risk analysis. The Fine and Gray model was fitted in order to estimate the effect of covariates on the cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for in-hospital mortality and discharge. Results: 426 adult patients (median age 68 (IQR, 56 to 77 years) were admitted with confirmed COVID-19 over a 5-week period;292 (69%) were male. By 21 April 2020, 141 (33%) of these patients had died, 239 (56%) patients had been discharged and 46 (11%) were still hospitalised. Regression on the CIFs for in-hospital mortality showed that older age, male sex, number of comorbidities and hospital admission after March 4 th were independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Olderage, male sex and number of comorbidities definitively predicted in-hospital mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323211

ABSTRACT

The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and host immunity is unknown. We show here that patients with COVID-19 had an altered immune phenotype, with an expansion of adaptive FceRIg neg NK cells, and inflammatory CD14 + CD16 + monocytes. T cells were reduced and overexpressed the Tim-3 exhaustion molecule. Low frequencies of CD8 T cells and NKG2A + NK cells, and expansion of mature CD57 + NK cells were associated with poor prognosis. These findings unveil a unique immunological profile in COVID-19 patients.

6.
J Pers Med ; 11(8)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335139

ABSTRACT

Despite low rates of bacterial co-infections, most COVID-19 patients receive antibiotic therapy. We hypothesized that patients with positive pneumococcal urinary antigens (PUAs) would benefit from antibiotic therapy in terms of clinical outcomes (death, ICU admission, and length of stay). The San Matteo COVID-19 Registry (SMACORE) prospectively enrolls patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia at IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia. We retrospectively extracted the data of patients tested for PUA from October to December 2020. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. Of 469 patients, 42 tested positive for PUA (8.95%), while 427 (91.05%) tested negative. A positive PUA result had no significant impact on death (HR 0.53 CI [0.22-1.28] p-value 0.16) or ICU admission (HR 0.8; CI [0.25-2.54] p-value 0.70) in the Cox regression model, nor on length of stay in linear regression (estimate 1.71; SE 2.37; p-value 0.47). After adjusting for age, we found no significant correlation between urinary antigen positivity and variations in the WHO ordinal scale and laboratory markers at admission and after 14 days. We found that a positive PUA result was not frequent and had no impact on clinical outcomes or clinical improvement. Our results did not support the routine use of PUA tests to select COVID-19 patients who will benefit from antibiotic therapy.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1137, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065934

ABSTRACT

An accurate prediction of the clinical outcomes of European patients requiring hospitalisation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lacking. The aim of the study is to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and discharge in a cohort of Lombardy patients with COVID-19. All consecutive hospitalised patients from February 21st to March 30th, 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 from the IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy, were included. In-hospital mortality and discharge were evaluated by competing risk analysis. The Fine and Gray model was fitted in order to estimate the effect of covariates on the cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for in-hospital mortality and discharge. 426 adult patients [median age 68 (IQR 56 to 77 years)] were admitted with confirmed COVID-19 over a 5-week period; 292 (69%) were male. By 21 April 2020, 141 (33%) of these patients had died, 239 (56%) patients had been discharged and 46 (11%) were still hospitalised. Among these 46 patients, updated as of 30 May, 2020, 5 (10.9%) had died, 8 (17.4%) were still in ICU, 12 (26.1%) were transferred to lower intensity care units and 21 (45.7%) were discharged. Regression on the CIFs for in-hospital mortality showed that older age, male sex, number of comorbidities and hospital admission after March 4th were independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Older age, male sex and number of comorbidities definitively predicted in-hospital mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment
8.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(3): 604-612, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872685

ABSTRACT

The relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and host immunity is poorly understood. We performed an extensive analysis of immune responses in 32 patients with severe COVID-19, some of whom succumbed. A control population of healthy subjects was included. Patients with COVID-19 had an altered distribution of peripheral blood lymphocytes, with an increased proportion of mature natural killer (NK) cells and low T-cell numbers. NK cells and CD8+ T cells overexpressed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and CD69. NK cell exhaustion was attested by increased frequencies of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) positive cells and reduced frequencies of natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D)-, DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1)- and sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 7 (Siglec-7)-expressing NK cells, associated with a reduced ability to secrete interferon (IFN)γ. Patients with poor outcome showed a contraction of immature CD56bright and an expansion of mature CD57+ FcεRIγneg adaptive NK cells compared to survivors. Increased serum levels of IL-6 were also more frequently identified in deceased patients compared to survivors. Of note, monocytes secreted abundant quantities of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1ß which persisted at lower levels several weeks after recovery with concomitant normalization of CD69, PD-1 and TIM-3 expression and restoration of CD8+ T cell numbers. A hyperactivated/exhausted immune response dominate in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, probably driven by an uncontrolled secretion of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes. These findings unveil a unique immunological profile in COVID-19 patients that will help to design effective stage-specific treatments for this potentially deadly disease.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Differentiation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1882-1884, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-291819

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestation of COVID-19 can vary from an asymptomatic course to ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A kidney transplanted patient infected with SARS CoV-2 infection showed a mild disease despite immune suppression. It is possible that Immunosuppression can "be protective" as the cytokine storm is an important factor in the disease story. Despite the good outcome reported in the present case report, is remains of vital importance the solid organ transplant patients use precautions in order to avoid the infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Cytokines/metabolism , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/surgery , Humans , /methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
10.
Euro Surveill ; 25(16)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108685

ABSTRACT

We describe clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes of 44 Caucasian patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at a single hospital in Pavia, Italy, from 21-28 February 2020, at the beginning of the outbreak in Europe. Seventeen patients developed severe disease, two died. After a median of 6 days, 14 patients were discharged from hospital. Predictors of lower odds of discharge were age > 65 years, antiviral treatment and for severe disease, lactate dehydrogenase > 300 mg/dL.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Europe , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
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