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Front Public Health ; 10: 902835, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929657
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): e74-e87, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510480


During the current COVID-19 pandemic, health-care workers and uninfected patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are at risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 as a result of transmission from infected patients and health-care workers. In the absence of high-quality evidence on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, clinical practice of infection control and prevention in ICUs varies widely. Using a Delphi process, international experts in intensive care, infectious diseases, and infection control developed consensus statements on infection control for SARS-CoV-2 in an ICU. Consensus was achieved for 31 (94%) of 33 statements, from which 25 clinical practice statements were issued. These statements include guidance on ICU design and engineering, health-care worker safety, visiting policy, personal protective equipment, patients and procedures, disinfection, and sterilisation. Consensus was not reached on optimal return to work criteria for health-care workers who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 or the acceptable disinfection strategy for heat-sensitive instruments used for airway management of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Well designed studies are needed to assess the effects of these practice statements and address the remaining uncertainties.

COVID-19 , Consensus , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Delphi Technique , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/standards
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 1893-1903, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256162


PURPOSE: Critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients need hospitalization which increases their risk of acquiring secondary bacterial and fungal infections. The practice of empiric antimicrobial prescription, due to limited diagnostic capabilities of many hospitals, has the potential to escalate an already worrisome antimicrobial resistance (AMR) situation in India. This study reports the prevalence and profiles of secondary infections (SIs) and clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in India. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of secondary infections in patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs) and wards of ten hospitals of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) AMR surveillance network, between June and August 2020, was undertaken. The demographic data, time of infection after admission, microbiological and antimicrobial resistance data of secondary infections, and clinical outcome data of the admitted COVID-19 patients were collated. RESULTS: Out of 17,534 admitted patients, 3.6% of patients developed secondary bacterial or fungal infections. The mortality among patients who developed secondary infections was 56.7% against an overall mortality of 10.6% in total admitted COVID-19 patients. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 78% of patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae (29%) was the predominant pathogen, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (21%). Thirty-five percent of patients reported polymicrobial infections, including fungal infections. High levels of carbapenem resistance was seen in A. baumannii (92.6%) followed by K. pneumoniae (72.8%). CONCLUSION: Predominance of Gram-negative pathogens in COVID-19 patients coupled with high rates of resistance to higher generation antimicrobials is an alarming finding. A high rate of mortality in patients with secondary infections warrants extra caution to improve the infection control practices and practice of antimicrobial stewardship interventions not only to save patient lives but also prevent selection of drug-resistant infections, to which the current situation is very conducive.