Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Sustainability ; 14(21):13846, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2090323

ABSTRACT

Whale-watching tourism generates high-income seasonal livelihoods in coastal communities on the Mexican Pacific Coast;however, this sector is at risk from accelerated global changes. We evaluated the responses of a collaboration of tourism networks regarding the impacts COVID-19 using a longitudinal social network approach. We used a two-wave snowball method to identify potential interviewees and followed geographic and jurisdictional criteria using a face-to-face survey to map collaboration ties between 38 stakeholders involved in whale-watching tourism before and after the second wave of the pandemic. We also asked this group of stakeholders about their perceived impacts of COVID-19. We found slightly higher connectivity and centralization levels in the social networks after the pandemic. Loss of income and reservations, a decrease in both conservations and pollution, and an increase in the reduction in wildlife tourism were the main self-reported impacts. We also detected harmful pandemic legacies, such as whale-watching tours conducted using unregulated private boats. This research directly informs Mexico's whale-watching tourism policy by showing the management and coordination challenges that stakeholders face in a post-pandemic context. While the social fabric of coastal communities has been resilient to the COVID-19 pandemic, we found indications that the governance of marine resources can easily unravel if rule of law is absent.

2.
Vaccine: X ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970759

ABSTRACT

This research estimated the optimal size and composition of the portfolio, and its benefit–cost ratio, of COVID-19 vaccines that Colombia should negotiate as a price-taking country. The Advance Market Commitments (AMC) mathematical model was applied using the parameters from the Colombian context and from a literature review. The findings indicate that the optimal portfolio of Colombia should include 13 vaccines, mainly from two platforms: i) RNA and ii) inactivated virus. The benefit–cost ratio was always greater than one in the baseline scenario and after performing many sensitivity analyses on parameters such as the percentage of the population at risk, the price per treatment, and the herd immunity threshold, among others. In a context of high uncertainty, the best decision – with high benefit – is to anticipate the negotiation processes with the providers of COVID-19 vaccines, which will generate positive economic and health impacts

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736960

ABSTRACT

Concomitant use of cannabis with other drugs may lead to cannabis-drug interactions, mainly due to the pharmacokinetic mechanism involving the family of CYP450 isoenzymes. This narrative systematic review aimed to systematize the available information regarding clinical relevance of cannabis-drug interactions. We utilized the PubMed/Medline database for this systematic review, using the terms drug interactions and cannabis, between June 2011 and June 2021. Articles with cannabis-drug interactions in humans, in English or Spanish, with full-text access were selected. Two researchers evaluated the article's inclusion. The level of clinical relevance was determined according to the severity and probability of the interaction. Ninety-five articles were identified and twenty-six were included. Overall, 19 pairs of drug interactions with medicinal or recreational cannabis were identified in humans. According to severity and probability, 1, 2, 12, and 4 pairs of cannabis-drug interactions were classified at levels 1 (very high risk), 2 (high risk), 3 (medium risk), and 5 (without risk), respectively. Cannabis-warfarin was classified at level 1, and cannabis-buprenorphine and tacrolimus at level 2. This review provides evidence for both the low probability of the occurrence of clinically relevant drug interactions and the lack of evidence regarding cannabis-drug interactions.

4.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 25(5): 101632, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446472

ABSTRACT

Emerging human coronaviruses, including the recently identified SARS-CoV-2, are relevant respiratory pathogens due to their potential to cause epidemics with high case fatality rates, although endemic coronaviruses are also important for immunocompromised patients. Long-term coronavirus infections had been described mainly in experimental models, but it is currently evident that SARS-CoV-2 genomic-RNA can persist for many weeks in the respiratory tract of some individuals clinically recovered from coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19), despite a lack of isolation of infectious virus. It is still not clear whether persistence of such viral RNA may be pathogenic for the host and related to long-term sequelae. In this review, we summarize evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA persistence in respiratory samples besides results obtained from cell culture and histopathology describing long-term coronavirus infection. We also comment on potential mechanisms of coronavirus persistence and relevance for pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Cell Culture Techniques , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 633723, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334961

ABSTRACT

Background: The deterioration of Venezuela's health system in recent years undoubtedly contributes to an increased impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding healthcare workers' (HCWs) knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) toward COVID-19 in the early stages of the pandemic could inform their medical training and improve their preparedness. Methods: A online national cross-sectional survey was conducted between May 26th and May 30th, 2020, to assess KAPs among HCWs in Venezuela. Results: A total of 1,441 HCWs from all 24 regions of the country responded to the survey. The mean age of the HCWs was 44 (SD [standard deviation] 14) years; most were women (66.4%). Most HCWs were specialized doctors (48%), followed by nurses (13%) and resident doctors (12.3%). The majority of HCWs had good knowledge (76.3%), obtained information mainly from scientific literature (85.4%); had negative attitudes (53.6%), felt uncomfortable with their work during the current pandemic (59.8%); and reported appropriate practices (76.9%). However, participation in COVID-19 related training was absent in more than half of the HCWs. Positive attitudes were significantly more frequent in frontline workers than in non-frontline workers (p = 0.001). Bioanalysts, students, and doctors were more likely to have good knowledge; participating in training was a predictor for positive attitudes and older age was an appropriate practice predictor. Conclusions: HCWs, knowledge in Venezuela could be improved by strengthening education and training programs. Strategies should focus on reducing fear and improving attitudes toward the care of COVID-19 patients, as well as the promotion of preventive practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Venezuela
6.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 237: 110254, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239778

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to elucidate whether the route of booster vaccination affects the immune response against respiratory vaccine viruses in pre-weaning beef calves that receive primary intranasal (IN) vaccination during the first month of life. The objective was to compare the serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) titers to BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V, cytokine mRNA expression and mucosal BHV1- and BRSV-specific IgA in nasal secretions following administration of IN or subcutaneous (SC) modified-live virus (MLV) booster vaccines 60 days after primary IN vaccination in young beef calves. Twenty-one beef calves were administered 2 mL of an IN MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V (Inforce3®) between one and five weeks of age. Sixty days after primary vaccination, calves were randomly assigned to one of two groups: IN-MLV (n = 11): Calves received 2 mL of the same IN MLV vaccine used for primary vaccination and 2 mL of a SC MLV vaccine containing BVDV1 & 2 (Bovi- Shield GOLD® BVD). SC-MLV (n = 10): Calves were administered 2 mL of a MLV vaccine containing, BHV1, BRSV, BPI3V, and BVDV1 & 2 (Bovi-Shield GOLD® 5). Blood and nasal secretion samples were collected on days -61 (primary vaccination), -28, -14, 0 (booster vaccination), 14, 21, 28, 42 and 60 for determination of SNA titers, cytokine gene expression analysis and nasal virus-specific IgA concentrations. Statistical analysis was performed using a repeated measures analysis through PROC GLIMMIX of SAS®. Booster vaccination by neither IN nor SC routes induced a significant increase in SNA titers against BHV1, BRSV, and BPI3V. Subcutaneous booster vaccination induced significantly greater BRSV-specific SNA titers (on day 42) and IgA concentration in nasal secretions (on days 21 and 42) compared to calves receiving IN booster vaccination. Both IN and SC booster vaccination were able to stimulate the production of BHV1-specific IgA in nasal secretions. In summary, booster vaccination of young beef calves using either SC or IN route two months after IN MLV primary vaccination resulted in comparable SNA titers, cytokine gene expression profile and virus-specific IgA concentration in nasal secretions. Only a few differences in the systemic and mucosal immune response against BHV1 and BRSV were observed. Subcutaneous booster vaccination induced significantly greater BRSV-specific SNA and secretory IgA titers compared to IN booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/immunology , Administration, Intranasal/veterinary , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Immunization, Secondary/veterinary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage
7.
J Neurol Sci ; 426: 117463, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220928

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated individuals, families, and institutions throughout the world. Despite the breakneck speed of vaccine development, the human population remains at risk of further devastation. The decision to not become vaccinated, the protracted rollout of available vaccine, vaccine failure, mutational forms of the SARS virus, which may exhibit mounting resistance to our molecular strike at only one form of the viral family, and the rapid ability of the virus(es) to hitch a ride on our global transportation systems, means that we are will likely continue to confront an invisible, yet devastating foe. The enemy targets one of our human physiology's most important and vulnerable life-preserving body tissues, our broncho-alveolar gas exchange apparatus. Notwithstanding the fear and the fury of this microbe's potential to raise existential questions across the entire spectrum of human endeavor, the application of an early treatment intervention initiative may represent a crucial tool in our defensive strategy. This strategy is driven by evidence-based medical practice principles, those not likely to become antiquated, given the molecular diversity and mutational evolution of this very clever "world traveler".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL