Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 16 de 16
Filter
1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6025, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062212

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron is considered to be less severe than infection with variant Delta, with rarer occurrence of severe disease requiring intensive care. Little information is available on comorbid factors, clinical conditions and specific viral mutational patterns associated with the severity of variant Omicron infection. In this multicenter prospective cohort study, patients consecutively admitted for severe COVID-19 in 20 intensive care units in France between December 7th 2021 and May 1st 2022 were included. Among 259 patients, we show that the clinical phenotype of patients infected with variant Omicron (n = 148) is different from that in those infected with variant Delta (n = 111). We observe no significant relationship between Delta and Omicron variant lineages/sublineages and 28-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.68 [0.35-1.32]; p = 0.253). Among Omicron-infected patients, 43.2% are immunocompromised, most of whom have received two doses of vaccine or more (85.9%) but display a poor humoral response to vaccination. The mortality rate of immunocompromised patients infected with variant Omicron is significantly higher than that of non-immunocompromised patients (46.9% vs 26.2%; p = 0.009). In patients infected with variant Omicron, there is no association between specific sublineages (BA.1/BA.1.1 (n = 109) and BA.2 (n = 21)) or any viral genome polymorphisms/mutational profile and 28-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Humans , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006230

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised individuals generally fail to mount efficacious immune humoral responses following vaccination. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern has raised the question as to whether levels of anti-spike protein antibodies achieved after two or three doses of the vaccine efficiently protect against breakthrough infection in the context of immune suppression. We used a fluorescence-based neutralization assay to test the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 variants (ancestral variant, Beta, Delta, and Omicron BA.1) to the neutralizing response induced by vaccination in highly immunosuppressed allogeneic HSCT recipients, tested after two and three doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine. We show that neutralizing antibody responses to the Beta and Delta variants in most immunocompromised HSCT recipients increased after three vaccine doses up to values similar to those observed in twice-vaccinated healthy adults and were significantly lower against Omicron BA.1. Overall, neutralization titers correlated with the amount of anti-S-RBD antibodies measured by means of enzyme immunoassay, indicating that commercially available assays can be used to quantify the anti-S-RBD antibody response as a reliable surrogate marker of humoral immune protection in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Our findings support the recommendation of additional early vaccine doses as a booster of humoral neutralizing activity against emerging variants, in HSCT immunocompromised patients. In the context of Omicron circulation, it further emphasizes the need for reinforcement of preventive measures including the administration of monoclonal antibodies in this high-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0115722, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950017

ABSTRACT

Large-scale head-to-head assessment of the performance of lateral-flow tests (LFTs) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen is required in the context of the continuous emergence of new viral variants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 22 rapid LFTs for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigens. The clinical performance of 22 LFTs was evaluated in 1,157 samples collected in the Greater Paris area. The 8 best-performing LFTs were further assessed for their ability to detect 4 variants of concern (VOC), including the alpha, beta, delta, and omicron (BA.1) variants. The specificity of SARS-CoV-2 LFTs was generally high (100% for 15 of them) but was insufficient (<75%) for 3 tests. Sensitivity of the LFTs varied from 30.0% to 79.7% compared to nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Using a cycle threshold (CT) cutoff of ≤25, sensitivity of the assays ranged from 59.7% to 100%. The 8 best-performing assays had a sensitivity of ≥80% for the detection of the 4 VOC when the CT was ≤25. Falsely negative SARS-CoV-2 antigen LFT results were observed with omicron, due to the occurrence of low viral loads (CT > 30 in 32% of samples) during the two first days following symptom onset. Several LFTs exhibited satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, whereas a few others yielded an unacceptable proportion of false-positive results and/or lacked sensitivity. The sensitivity of the best-performing assays was not influenced by VOC, including alpha, beta, delta, and omicron variants. The ability of LFTs to detect the omicron variant could be reduced during the first days following symptom onset due to lower viral loads than with other variants. IMPORTANCE The use of lateral-flow tests (LFTs) to detect SARS-CoV-2 has expanded worldwide. LFTs detect SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen and are less sensitive than nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Their performance must be evaluated independently of the manufacturers. Our study assessed the performance of 22 SARS-CoV-2 antigen LFTs in large panels of well-characterized samples. The majority of LFTs tested exhibited satisfactory sensitivity and specificity, while some assays yielded unacceptable proportions of false-positive results, and others lacked sensitivity for samples containing large amounts of virus. The sensitivity of the best-performing assays did not vary according to the VOC, including the alpha, beta, delta, and omicron variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests/methods
4.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939016

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, α, spread worldwide at the beginning of 2021. It was suggested that this variant was associated with a higher risk of mortality than other variants. We aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated from patients with severe COVID-19 and unravel the relationships between specific viral mutations/mutational patterns and clinical outcomes. This is a prospective multicenter observational cohort study. Patients aged ≥18 years admitted to 11 intensive care units (ICUs) in hospitals in the Greater Paris area for SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory failure between 1 October 2020 and 30 May 2021 were included. The primary clinical endpoint was day-28 mortality. Full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sequenced by means of next-generation sequencing (Illumina COVIDSeq). In total, 413 patients were included, 183 (44.3%) were infected with pre-existing variants, 197 (47.7%) were infected with variant α, and 33 (8.0%) were infected with other variants. The patients infected with pre-existing variants were significantly older (64.9 ± 11.9 vs. 60.5 ± 11.8 years; p = 0.0005) and had more frequent COPD (11.5% vs. 4.1%; p = 0.009) and higher SOFA scores (4 [3-8] vs. 3 [2-4]; 0.0002). The day-28 mortality was no different between the patients infected with pre-existing, α, or other variants (31.1% vs. 26.2% vs. 30.3%; p = 0.550). There was no association between day-28 mortality and specific variants or the presence of specific mutations. At ICU admission, the patients infected with pre-existing variants had a different clinical presentation from those infected with variant α, but mortality did not differ between these groups. There was no association between specific variants or SARS-CoV-2 genome mutational pattern and day-28 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Critical Illness , Genomics , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1512-1515, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834285

ABSTRACT

We describe persistent circulation of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant in an immunosuppressed patient in France during February 2022. The virus had a new pattern of mutation accumulation. The ongoing circulation of previous variants of concern could lead to reemergence of variants with the potential to propagate future waves of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , France/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332623

ABSTRACT

Recombination is a crucial process in the evolution of many organisms. Although the evolutionary reasons behind its occurrence in RNA viruses are debated, this phenomenon has been associated with major epidemiological events such as virus host range expansion, antigenic shift or variation in virulence 1,2, and this process occurs frequently in positive strand RNA viruses such as coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been associated with the repeated emergence of variants of concern presenting increased transmissibility, severity or immune escape 3. The recent extensive circulation of Delta worldwide and its subsequent replacement by viruses of the Omicron lineage 4 (BA.1 then BA.2), have created conditions for genetic exchanges between viruses with both genetic diversity and phenotypic specificities 5-7. Here we report the identification and in vitro and in vivo characterization of a Delta-Omicron recombinant in Europe. This recombinant exhibits immune escape properties similar to Omicron, while its behavior in mice expressing the human ACE2 receptor is more similar to Delta. This recombinant provides a unique and natural opportunity to better understand the genotype to phenotype links in SARS-CoV-2.

8.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103934, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 lineages are continuously evolving. As of December 2021, the AY.4.2 Delta sub-lineage represented 20 % of sequenced strains in the UK and had been detected in dozens of countries. It has since then been supplanted by Omicron. The AY.4.2 spike displays three additional mutations (T95I, Y145H and A222V) in the N-terminal domain when compared to the original Delta variant (B.1.617.2) and remains poorly characterized. METHODS: We compared the Delta and the AY.4.2 spikes, by assessing their binding to antibodies and ACE2 and their fusogenicity. We studied the sensitivity of an authentic AY.4.2 viral isolate to neutralizing antibodies. FINDINGS: The AY.4.2 spike exhibited similar binding to all the antibodies and sera tested, and similar fusogenicity and binding to ACE2 than the ancestral Delta spike. The AY.4.2 virus was slightly less sensitive than Delta to neutralization by a panel of monoclonal antibodies; noticeably, the anti-RBD Imdevimab showed incomplete neutralization. Sensitivity of AY.4.2 to sera from vaccinated individuals was reduced by 1.3 to 3-fold, when compared to Delta. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that mutations in the NTD remotely impair the efficacy of anti-RBD antibodies. The spread of AY.4.2 was not due to major changes in spike fusogenicity or ACE2 binding, but more likely to a partially reduced neutralization sensitivity. FUNDING: The work was funded by Institut Pasteur, Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, Urgence COVID-19 Fundraising Campaign of Institut Pasteur, ANRS, the Vaccine Research Institute, Labex IBEID, ANR/FRM Flash Covid PROTEO-SARS-CoV-2 and IDISCOVR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 707-710, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703814

ABSTRACT

There are concerns about neutralizing antibodies' (NAbs') potency against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants. Despite decreased NAb titers elicited by BNT162b2 vaccine against VOC202012/01 and 501Y.V2 strains, 28/29 healthcare workers (HCWs) had an NAb titer ≥1:10. In contrast, 6 months after coronavirus disease 2019 mild forms, only 9/15 (60%) of HCWs displayed detectable NAbs against 501Y.V2 strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 517-520, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684545

ABSTRACT

We report an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 501Y.V2 in a nursing home. All nonvaccinated residents (5/5) versus half of those vaccinated with BNT162b2 (13/26) were infected. Two of 13 vaccinated versus 4 of 5 nonvaccinated residents presented severe disease. BNT162b2 did not prevent the outbreak, but reduced transmission and disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination
12.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295413

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT There are concerns about neutralizing antibodies (NAb) potency against the newly emerged VOC202012/01 (UK) and 501Y.V2 (SA) SARS-CoV-2 variants in mRNA-vaccinated subjects and in recovered COVID-19 patients. We used a viral neutralization test with a strict 100% neutralizing criterion on UK and SA clinical isolates in comparison with a globally distributed D614G SARS-CoV-2 strain. In two doses BNT162b2-vaccinated healthcare workers (HCW), despite heterogeneity in neutralizing capacity against the three SARS-CoV-2 strains, most of the sera harbored at least a NAb titer ≥ 1:10 suggesting a certain humoral protection activity either on UK or SA variants. However, six months after mild forms of COVID-19, an important proportion of HCW displayed no neutralizing activity against SA strain. This result supports strong recommendations for vaccination of previously infected subjects.

13.
J Clin Virol ; 146: 105048, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540751

ABSTRACT

Direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens could replace RT-PCR, provided that its clinical performance is validated in different epidemiological settings. Here, we evaluated the performance of the VITROS Antigen test, an enzyme immunoassay detecting a SARS-CoV-2 antigen, in NPSs from 3 cohorts of patients. METHODS: Three cohorts including SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive samples collected during the first and second wave of the French epidemic between March 2020 and February 2021 (including variant B.1.1.7/α and variant B.1.351/ß). RESULTS: Among the 1763 prospectively tested subjects, 8.2% (145/1763) were SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive by RT-PCR. Using Ct ≤ 30 and Ct ≤ 35 as thresholds, the sensitivities of the antigen assay were 98.8% (93.6-100%) and 93.5% (87.0-97.3%), respectively. The overall specificity of the assay was 100% (1614/1614; 99.8-100%). In a retrospective cohort of subjects infected with variants of concern, 90.4% (47/52) of NPSs containing B. B.1.1.7/α (Ct ≤ 35) and 100% (7/7) of those containing B.1.351/ß were positive with the VITROS EIA SARS-CoV-2 Antigen test. CONCLUSION: The excellent performance of the EIA Antigen test reported here, including in patients infected with viral "variants of concern", support the use of high-throughput, EIA-based SARS-CoV-2 antigen assays as an alternative or complement to nucleic acid testing in order to scale-up laboratory screening and diagnostic capacities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoenzyme Techniques , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1540-1543, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201928

ABSTRACT

We report a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variant derived from clade 19B (HMN.19B variant or Henri Mondor variant). This variant is characterized by the presence of 18 amino acid substitutions, including 7-8 substitutions in the spike protein and 2 deletions. These variants actively circulate in different regions of France.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Amino Acid Substitution , France/epidemiology , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009416, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156080

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterized by respiratory symptoms of various severities, ranging from mild upper respiratory signs to acute respiratory failure/acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with a high mortality rate. However, the pathophysiology of the disease is largely unknown. Shotgun metagenomics from nasopharyngeal swabs were used to characterize the genomic, metagenomic and transcriptomic features of patients from the first pandemic wave with various forms of COVID-19, including outpatients, patients hospitalized not requiring intensive care, and patients in the intensive care unit, to identify viral and/or host factors associated with the most severe forms of the disease. Neither the genetic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, nor the detection of bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites were associated with the severity of pulmonary disease. Severe pneumonia was associated with overexpression of cytokine transcripts activating the CXCR2 pathway, whereas patients with benign disease presented with a T helper "Th1-Th17" profile. The latter profile was associated with female gender and a lower mortality rate. Our findings indicate that the most severe cases of COVID-19 are characterized by the presence of overactive immune cells resulting in neutrophil pulmonary infiltration which, in turn, could enhance the inflammatory response and prolong tissue damage. These findings make CXCR2 antagonists, in particular IL-8 antagonists, promising candidates for the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-8B/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-8B/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL