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1.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 134(9-10): 399-419, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802740

ABSTRACT

The Austrian Society of Pneumology (ASP) launched a first statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in May 2020, at a time when in Austria 285 people had died from this disease and vaccinations were not available. Lockdown and social distancing were the only available measures to prevent more infections and the breakdown of the health system. Meanwhile, in Austria over 13,000 patients have died in association with a SARS-CoV­2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was among the most common causes of death; however, SARS-CoV­2 has been mutating all the time and currently, most patients have been affected by the delta variant where the vaccination is very effective but the omicron variant is rapidly rising and becoming predominant. Particularly in children and young adults, where the vaccination rate is low, the omicron variant is expected to spread very fast. This poses a particular threat to unvaccinated people who are at elevated risk of severe COVID-19 disease but also to people with an active vaccination. There are few publications that comprehensively addressed the special issues with SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. These were the reasons for this updated statement. Pulmonologists care for many patients with an elevated risk of death in case of COVID-19 but also for patients that might be at an elevated risk of vaccination reactions or vaccination failure. In addition, lung function tests, bronchoscopy, respiratory physiotherapy and training therapy may put both patients and health professionals at an increased risk of infection. The working circles of the ASP have provided statements concerning these risks and how to avoid risks for the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Medicine , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0235121, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745797

ABSTRACT

Microbiological diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a challenge. Although real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) represents the gold standard method, strategies that allow rapid and simple diagnosis are necessary for the early identification of cases. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of six different commercial rapid antigen tests (Coronavirus antigen [Ag] rapid test cassette [Healgen Scientific, Houston, TX, USA], COVID-19 Ag FIA [Vircell, SD Biosensor Inc., Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea], Clinitest rapid COVID-19 antigen test [Siemens, Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany], SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test [SD Biosensor; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland], Panbio COVID-19 Ag rapid test device [Abbott, Chicago, IL, USA], and SARS-CoV-2 test [MonLab, Barcelona, Spain]) in 130 nasopharyngeal swab samples tested previously by RT-PCR. The overall sensitivity of the rapid tests ranged from 65% to 79%, and the specificity was 100% for all of them. The sensitivity was higher for those samples with RT-PCR cycle threshold (CT) values below 25 and those from patients presenting within the first week of symptoms. The Siemens test showed the highest sensitivity for patients with high viral loads while the Vircell test performed better than the rest for CT values of ≥25. IMPORTANCE The rapid detection of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 is essential for a correct and effective control of the disease it causes. This process must be sensitive, fast, and simple, and it must be possible to carry out in any type of health center. Rapid antigen tests are the answer to this need. Knowing its ability to detect the virus in different stages of the disease is essential for a correct diagnosis, which is why this study has been carried out to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of 6 different antigens tests in nasopharyngeal smear samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305396

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate dry eye (DE) and subjective visual display terminal (VDT)-related symptoms in university students who moved their classes online due to the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: Cross-sectional study of students who were taking online classes. In May 2020, the participants completed a Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ-5) and a self-report survey, which included demographics, medical history, information on the use of VDT and presence of VDT-related symptoms. Participants were classified as having mild/moderate (7-12) or severe (>12) DE symptoms based on their DEQ-5 score. The associations between severe DE symptoms and relevant factors were also evaluated.Results: The data of 1450 eligible students were analyzed. The mean age of the participants was 21.1 (2.7) years. 42.8% of the participants had mild/moderate DE symptoms, whereas 34.7% had severe symptoms. Associated factors for severe DE were female sex (OR = 2.57, CI [1.97-3.35]), allergic disease (OR = 1.63, CI [1.24-2.13]), previous dry eye diagnosis (OR = 13.49, CI [7.10-25.63]), keratoconus (OR = 5.56, CI [1.27-24.44], contact lens use (OR = 1.77, CI [1.24-2.53]) and duration of VDT use (OR = 1.02, CI [1.01-1.05]). Prior to the pandemic, the mean reported duration of VDT use was 9.8 (4.7) hours; this increased to 15.9 (5.8) hours during the online classes (p < .001). 80.6% of the participants reported a global increase in VDT-related symptoms.Conclusion: Students taking online classes had a high frequency of DE symptoms. They also reported a significant increase in VDT-related symptoms. DE should be considered as an emerging health problem among the young population, which is probably related to the recent changes in lifestyle.

4.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(6): 1137-1145, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283830

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Many institutionalized older people have died during the first wave of COVID-19. Other related consequences have not yet been described objectively. The aim of this study was to compare functional, cognitive, and nutritional status before and after the first wave among nursing home residents, in both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Older adults institutionalized in four nursing homes were assessed from May to June 2020, by a geriatric multidisciplinary team in collaboration with the nursing homes staff. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed including functional, cognitive, and nutritional variables before and after the first wave of the pandemic. Data from residents with positive results for microbiological testing for SARS-CoV-2 were compared with those who did not. RESULTS: 435 nursing home residents were included. The median age was 86.77 ± 8.5 years, 78.4% were women. 190 (43.9%) tested positive for coronavirus. Functional decline after the first wave was detected in 20.2% according to the Barthel Index and in 18.5% according to functional ambulation categories, p < 0.001. Cognitive status worsened by 22 and 25.9% according to the global deterioration scale (p < 0.001) and Lobo's Mini-Examen Cognoscitivo (p 0.01), respectively. Onset of depressive symptoms was found in 48% (p < 0.001). The prevalence of malnutrition increased by 36.8 and 38.4% lost weight. When comparing the functional, cognitive, and nutritional decline between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients no clinical or statistically significant differences were found except for the presence of prior malnutrition, higher in the COVID-19 group. CONCLUSION: We observed a significative functional, cognitive, and nutritional decline in institutionalized elderly after the first wave of COVID-19. These results may be caused by the lockdown itself, since no differences have been found between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. According to these results, interventions are necessary during social isolation or confinement to prevent systemic decline in the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cognition , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(2): 102-109, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115630

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the experience in a public pediatric hospital when implementing the Mexican Health Ministry's recommendations on the inclusion and importance of a chosen caregiver during the hospitalization of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pediatric patient. The implementation includes the adjustments, observations, and limitations made in real practice and process. In conclusion, the value and benefits of the accompaniment of hospitalized children with COVID-19 by a primary or chosen caregiver are evidenced and supported by family-centered care. Furthermore, the recommendations mentioned result in comprehensive bio-psycho-social care for the benefit of pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Caregivers/organization & administration , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Mexico , Patient-Centered Care/methods
6.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(13-14): 365-386, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996394

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently a challenge worldwide. In Austria, a crisis within the healthcare system has so far been prevented. The treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), including SARS-CoV­2 infections, should continue to be based on evidence-based CAP guidelines during the pandemic; however, COVID-19 specific adjustments are useful. The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases has to be adapted during the pandemic but must still be guaranteed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Lung Diseases/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Medicine , Adolescent , Adult , Austria , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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