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1.
New Microbes New Infect ; 48: 101021, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004382

ABSTRACT

Recurrent positivity in a patient with COVID-19 may be due to various reasons, not necessarily reinfection. There is concern about the occurrence frequency of reinfection. Five databases and a preprint/preprint repository were searched. All case reports, case series, and observational studies were included. Bias was assessed for each study with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale tool and reported according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA-2020). After eligibility, 77 studies were included for qualitative synthesis (52 case reports, 21 case series, and four case-controls; 1131 patients included). Of these, 16 studies described a second contact with the SARS-CoV-2 positive case, five studies described healthcare profession-related infection, ten studies described that the source of reinfection was likely to be from the community, one study described travel-related infection, nine studies described vulnerability-related infection due to comorbidity. The mean number of days from discharge or negative test to reinfection ranged from 23.3 to 57.6 days across the different included studies. The risk of bias for all case report/series studies was moderate/high. For observational studies, the risk of bias was low. Reinfection of patients with COVID-19 occurs between the first and second month after the first infection, but beyond, and 90 days have been proposed as a point to begin to consider it. The main factor for reinfection is contact with COVID-19 positive cases.

2.
Pandemic Outbreaks in the 21st Century: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Prevention, and Treatment ; : 11-24, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1803300

ABSTRACT

Over the year 2020, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) impact, caused by the Severe Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, has been highly significant in the world. As expected, resource-constrained areas of the world, as is the case of Latin America, have been more affected given their previous epidemiological context, health care systems, and socioeconomic conditions. In this chapter the main epidemiological features of the COVID-19 during the first year of the pandemic in this region are revised. © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 90(3):158-173, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1717235

ABSTRACT

After the appearance of first cases of pneumonia of unknown origin in the Wuhan city, China, during late 2019, the disease progressed fast. Its cause was identified as a novel coronavirus, named provisionally 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, an official name was given as SARS-CoV-2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV study group. The World Health Organization WHO named the Coronavirus disease-2019 as COVID-19. The epidemics of COVID-2019 have been recorded over 113 countries/territories/areas apart from China and filched more than 4,292 humans, affecting severely around 1,18,326 cases in a short span. The status of COVID-2019 emergency revised by the WHO within 42 days from Public Health International Emergency January 30, 2020 to a pandemic March 11, 2020. Nonetheless, the case fatality rate CFR of the current epidemic is on the rise between 2-4%, relatively is lower than the previous SARS-CoV 2002/2003 and MERS-CoV 2012 outbreaks. Even though investigations are on its way, the researchers across the globe have assumptions of animal-origin of current SARS-CoV-2. A recent case report provides evidence of mild COVID-2019 infection in a pet dog that acquired COVID-2019 infection from his owner in Hong Kong. The news on travellers associated spread across the globe have also put many countries on alert with the cancellation of tourist visa to all affected countries and postponement of events where international visits were required. A few diagnostic approaches, including quantitative and differential real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, have been recommended for the screening of the individuals at risk. In the absence of any selective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, re-purposed drugs are advocated in many studies. This article discourse the current worldwide situation of COVID-2019 with information on virus, epidemiology, host, the role of animals, effective diagnosis, therapeutics, preventive and control approaches making people aware on the disease outcomes.

4.
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat ; 29(3):135-147, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1601869

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus emerged in 2019 in Wuhan, China named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome type 2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Later, this virus spread worldwide, causing a disease called coronavirus disease (COVID-19). To control the outbreak, many countries announced mandatory quarantine;thus, people changed their lifestyles and started engaging in most activities from home. This review explains how some dermatological pathologies may be precipitated by prolonged stays at home, considering that quarantine was a widely used public health measure during 2020. Most of these dermatoses had to be seen, diagnosed, and treated through tele-dermatology, a remote health care system that took force during the COVID-19 pandemic because of its ease and efficiency in connecting health care professionals and their patients;therefore, reducing the risk of contagion and costs associated to medical care. This review of the principal dermatologic conditions during confinement could allow for a better preparation of health professionals.

5.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 59(1): 76-82, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mortality in pregnancy due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current health priority in developing countries. Identification of clinical and sociodemographic risk factors related to mortality in pregnant women with COVID-19 could guide public policy and encourage such women to accept vaccination. We aimed to evaluate the association of comorbidities and socioeconomic determinants with COVID-19-related mortality and severe disease in pregnant women in Mexico. METHODS: This is an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort study that includes all pregnant women with a positive reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from the Mexican National Registry of Coronavirus. The primary outcome was maternal death due to COVID-19. The association of comorbidities and socioeconomic characteristics with maternal death was explored using a log-binomial regression model adjusted for possible confounders. RESULTS: There were 176 (1.35%) maternal deaths due to COVID-19 among 13 062 consecutive SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women. Maternal age, as a continuous (adjusted relative risk (aRR), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05-1.10)) or categorical variable, was associated with maternal death due to COVID-19; women aged 35-39 years (aRR, 3.16 (95% CI, 2.34-4.26)) or 40 years or older (aRR, 4.07 (95% CI, 2.65-6.25)) had a higher risk for mortality, as compared with those aged < 35 years. Other clinical risk factors associated with maternal mortality were pre-existing diabetes (aRR, 2.66 (95% CI, 1.65-4.27)), chronic hypertension (aRR, 1.75 (95% CI, 1.02-3.00)) and obesity (aRR, 2.15 (95% CI, 1.46-3.17)). Very high social vulnerability (aRR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.26-2.80)) and high social vulnerability (aRR, 1.49 (95% CI, 1.04-2.13)) were associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, while very low social vulnerability was associated with a reduced risk (aRR, 0.47 (95% CI, 0.30-0.73)). Being poor or extremely poor were also risk factors for maternal mortality (aRR, 1.53 (95% CI, 1.09-2.15) and aRR, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.32-2.53), respectively). CONCLUSION: This study, which comprises the largest prospective consecutive cohort of pregnant women with COVID-19 to date, has confirmed that advanced maternal age, pre-existing diabetes, chronic hypertension, obesity, high social vulnerability and low socioeconomic status are risk factors for COVID-19-related maternal mortality. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Maternal Death/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Social Vulnerability , Adult , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Maternal Mortality , Mexico , Poverty , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
6.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 9(2):108-116, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1498103

ABSTRACT

Corruption in healthcare is on the rise. When corruption infiltrates global health, causes embezzlement of public health funds, malfunctioning medical equipment, fraudulent or ineffective health services such as expired medicines and fake vaccines that could have life-or-death consequences. A corrupt healthcare system, amid global health crises like the COVID-19 pandemic, when resources are in constraint and trust is in high demand, can lead to devastating, though avoidable, health and economic consequences. It is imperative for policymakers, health experts, patients, caregivers, and global health funders to promptly acknowledge and address corruption in healthcare. The current pandemic generates an emergency and disorder state on health care systems across the globe, especially in low- and middleincome countries, where a weakening of control measures is evident, creating the perfect storm for corruption. This paper builds on existing research to examine processes that support essential stakeholder engagement in anti-corruption efforts. In this context, an extensive review of literature has been conducted by using various databases such as PubMed, Science direct, SCOPUS, Research Gate, and Google Scholar and a total of 45 articles and documents on corruption and COVID-19 were screened and selected by authors independently. To fill the knowledge gaps about the need for actions to be taken during a pandemic like COVID-19, we propose an anti-corruption grassroots movement that focuses on changing the social norms surrounding corruption in healthcare. By pushing forward a practice that normalizes conversations about corruption in everyday health practices and involving more stakeholders in the protection of public health resources, we argue that not only local health systems can become more resilient and resistant to corruption, but also global health initiatives can become more effective and efficient to improve individual and global health.

7.
Antibiotics ; 10(8), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1408369

ABSTRACT

Overuse of antibiotics during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could increase the selection of extensively resistant bacteria (XDR). However, it is unknown what impact they could have on the evolution of patients, particularly critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics and impact of ICU-acquired infections in patients with COVID-19. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, evaluating all patients with critical COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital in Southern Peru from 28 March 2020 to 1 March 2021. Of the 124 patients evaluated, 50 (40.32%) developed a healthcare-associated infection (HAI), which occurred at a median of 8 days (IQR 6-17) after ICU admission. The proportion of patients with HAI that required ceftriaxone was significantly higher;the same was true for the use of dexamethasone. Forty bacteria isolations (80%) were classified as XDR to antibiotics, with the most common organisms being Acinetobacter baumannii (54%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%);33% (41/124) died at the ICU during the follow-up. In the adjusted analysis, healthcare-associated infection was associated with an increased risk of mortality (aHR= 2.7;95% CI: 1.33-5.60) and of developing acute renal failure (aRR = 3.1;95% CI: 1.42-6.72). The incidence of healthcare infection mainly by XDR pathogens is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and is associated with an increased risk of complications or death.

8.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 9(2):131-137, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1404144

ABSTRACT

Skin manifestations have been reported in up to 20% of cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including morbilliform rash (22%), pernio-like acral lesions (18%), urticaria (16%), and macular erythema (13%). It is believed that in the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the mechanism involved is an inflammatory response that generates immune dysregulation, vascular congestion, vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or neoangiogenesis. This case study, present the case of a patient with no previous history of urticarial reactions, autoimmune diseases, or exposure to medications who develops generalized urticaria lasting more than 24 hours and who was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR with a nasopharyngeal swab. We suggest in this patient vasculitic urticaria as a manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. © 2021, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

9.
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ; 8(1):261-268, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1402192

ABSTRACT

The course of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly affected the healthcare systems in multiple ways, the programs of control and the management of patients with other infectious diseases as well as with chronic and acute non-communicable diseases, including those conditions requiring blood transfusions. Blood donations have been decreasing over time in multiple countries with their expected consequences. Although the spread of SARS-CoV-2 has not been detected via blood transfusion, the increasing fear and anxiety among communities have led to a substantial decrease in blood donations. Several research groups have raised concerns about the consequences associated with the scarcity of blood. However, it is critical to understand the underlying causes of the sharp decline in blood donations, as well as the consequences. Hence, we discuss the impact of blood scarcity at the blood banks during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as strategies to promote blood donations, given the experience in some countries with this situation. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

10.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 9(3):239-253, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1328329

ABSTRACT

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is primarily associated with a respiratory infection, it has also been linked to multisystem involvement that includes the digestive tract. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are common in patients with COVID-19 due to the high viral load lodged in the small intestine's mucosa. As a result, it causes an increase in the permeability of the intestinal barrier that favours the passage and translocation of bacteria, from the lumen of the intestine, towards the internal environment, with the appearance of sepsis, with evidence that SARS-CoV-2 has been found in faeces. This article highlights epidemiology, clinical symptoms, and mechanisms related to manifestations of disease in the GI tract and its pathogenesis in patients with COVID-19. It highlights bacterial translocation and COVID-19, mechanisms that control bacterial translocation, intestinal infection and feco-oral transmission, defense mechanisms against microbial invasion, role of microbiota/microbiome and implications of their dysbiosis and alterations during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and lastly protective health benefits by improving dietary habits with nutritional foods approaches amid the ongoing pandemic. Increasing evidence indicates that bacterial translocation appears due to the high viral load of COVID-19 in the mucosa of the GI tract, and the intestinal microbiota contributes to the COVID-19 course owing to their bidirectional relationship with the immune system and lungs. Dysbiosis in gut microbiota leads to increased gut permeability thus predisposing to secondary infection and multiple organ dysfunction. Disruption of intestinal barrier integrity due to dysbiosis may cause translocation of SARS-CoV-2 from lungs into the intestinal lumen via the circulatory and lymphatic system, initiating severe clinical presentation of the infection. A thorough understanding of the key role of gut microbiota, gastrointestinal symptoms, and pathology along with immunomodulatory approaches would help in alleviating morbidity and mortality during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. © 2021, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences.

11.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Suppl. 1):S114-S118, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1319898

ABSTRACT

Many unanswered questions remain about COVID-19 infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. One such looming concern is the possibility of reinfection of recovered cases. We conducted a literature review on various aspects of this possibility, including the case presentations of relapsed/re-infected patients, the immune response of production of neutralizing antibodies, immunity in response to coronavirus during SARS-CoV2 and MERS, possibility of false-positive results of real-time polymerase chain reaction. We concluded that further studies are required to establish whether relapse or reinfection is possible firmly. However, these possibilities point towards the needs of change in the protocol of isolation, quarantine, and discharge. It also undermines the role of the upcoming vaccine in disease prevention and treatment.

12.
World's Veterinary Journal ; 11(2):170-180, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1312132

ABSTRACT

Bats are a group of mammals that harbor the most significant number of coronaviruses. The aim of present review article was to analyze the broad spectrum of the coronavirus coexisting in Chiropterans hosts. Bats have certain types of cell receptors that allow them to be the potential hosts of a large number of viruses without the presence of any clinical manifestations, and to be a source of contagion infections for other animals and human species. Emphasis can be placed on five coronaviruses, such as Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Disease, Severe Acute Diarrhea Syndrome, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2, which have had significant impacts causing epidemic outbreaks in different parts of the world, and generating implications for both human and animal health. In conclusion, recent research indicated the importance of bats as potential hosts of multiple coroaviruses leading to some zoonotic diseases.

14.
Infez Med ; 29(2):181-190, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1248641

ABSTRACT

In recent years, and now especially with the arrival of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been increased interest in understanding the role of bats in the dynamics of transmission and origin of this pandemic agent. To date, no systematic reviews have been published on this topic. This systematic review aimed to summarize and highlight the frequency of bat infections reported in currently available observational studies for coronavirus. The purpose of this study was also to examine the differences between the pool prevalence by technique and country. We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess coronavirus (CoV) infection in bats and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We carried out random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). In all, 824 articles were retrieved (1960-2021). After screening by abstract/title, 43 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of these, 33 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From the total of studies, the pool prevalence by RT-PCR (n=14,295 bats) for CoV was 9.8% (95% CI 8.7-10.9%);Italy reported the highest pooled prevalence (44.9%, 95% CI 31.6-58.1%), followed by the Philippines (29.6%). Regarding the ELISA, the pool prevalence for coronavirus from 15 studies, including 359 bats, was 30.2% (95% CI 14.7-45.6%). The results for coronaviruses with the MIF were significantly lower, 2.6% (95% CI 1.5-3.7%). A considerable proportion of infected bats tested positive, particularly by molecular tests. This essential condition highlights the relevance of bats and the need for future studies to detail their role as potential reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2. In this meta-analysis, bats were positive in almost 10% by RT-PCR, suggesting their relevance and the need to understand their potential participation in maintaining wild zoonotic transmission.

15.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S273, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185775

ABSTRACT

Background: Sensitive and specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody diagnostics are urgently needed to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in both the general population and special risk groups. Moreover, validated serologic assays are critical to understanding immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection over time and identifying correlates of protection. Methods: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol to detect antibodies (IgG) that bind the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was validated and ROC curve analysis performed by testing a large panel of pre-pandemic sera (n=162) and convalescent sera from RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases (n=60). We then applied this test in two cohorts: 1) Healthcare personnel (HCP) that were enrolled in a longitudinal surveillance cohort just after peak local transmission and 2) Mildly ill patients being tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR from NP swabs in an ambulatory testing clinic. Results: ROC curve analysis yielded an AUC of 0.9953, with a sensitivity and specificity at 91.67% and 99.38% at the optimal OD normalization threshold of 0.20. In 240 HCP surveilled at enrollment, 5.83% had positive IgG results. Of 19 symptomatic patients who presented to the ambulatory clinic, 5/19 had a positive PCR. In convalescence (13-74 days post symptom onset), 3 of those 5 were positive for IgG. Conclusion: We demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD ELISA. This simple assay is an efficient way to track seroconversion and duration of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 for different populations, particularly since RBD-binding antibodies have been shown to correlate with neutralization activity and may be useful to determine protective immunity following natural infection or vaccination. Ongoing work will assess variation in magnitude, character and duration of antibody responses in key populations and seek to maximize deployability of large-scale SARS-CoV-2 serology. (Table Presented).

17.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 29(1):37-45, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1148662

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between COVID-19 severity and androgenic alopecia in patients hospitalized in the Surgery Service of Honorio Delgado Espinoza Hospital in Arequipa, Peru. A cross-sectional study was performed in male patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Alopecia, clinical characteristics, treatment, and evolution were collected. In all, 98 patients were included;median age was 55 years old (range 18-89), 32.7% with comorbidities, and 45.9% with androgenic alopecia. The severity of COVID-19 infection was moderate to severe in 13.2% of patients without alopecia, and in 88.9% of patients with alopecia (p>0.001). In the logistic regression model analysis, patients with alopecia had a higher risk of presenting moderate to severe symptoms due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR: 80.2;95% CI 16.2-397.7). In conclusion, the severity of infection was statistically significant in patients over 60 years old and those with alopecia.

18.
Infezioni in Medicina ; 29(1):10-19, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117873

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic worldwide. On a daily basis the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. The main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is through the air (airborne transmission). This review details the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the aerodynamics, and different modes of transmission (e.g. droplets, droplet nuclei, and aerosol particles). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by an infected person during activities such as expiration, coughing, sneezing, and talking. During such activities and some medical procedures, aerosols and droplets contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 particles are formed. Depending on their sizes and the environmental conditions, such particles stay viable in the air for varying time periods and can cause infection in a susceptible host. Very few studies have been conducted to establish the mechanism or the aerodynamics of virus-loaded particles and droplets in causing infection. In this review we discuss the various forms in which SARS-CoV-2 virus particles can be transmitted in air and cause infections.

19.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 90(3):303-317, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1008432

ABSTRACT

After the appearance of first cases of 'pneumonia of unknown origin' in the Wuhan city, China, during late 2019, the disease progressed fast. Its cause was identified as a novel coronavirus, named provisionally 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, an official name was given as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) study group. The World Health Organization (WHO) named the Coronavirus disease-2019 as COVID-19. The epidemics of COVID-2019 have been recorded over 113 countries/territories/areas apart from China and filched more than 4,292 humans, affecting severely around 1,18,326 cases in a short span. The status of COVID-2019 emergency revised by the WHO within 42 days from Public Health International Emergency (January 30, 2020) to a pandemic (March 11, 2020). Nonetheless, the case fatality rate (CFR) of the current epidemic is on the rise (between 2-4%), relatively is lower than the previous SARS-CoV (2002/2003) and MERS-CoV (2012) outbreaks. Even though investigations are on its way, the researchers across the globe have assumptions of animal-origin of current SARS-CoV-2. A recent case report provides evidence of mild COVID-2019 infection in a pet dog that acquired COVID-2019 infection from his owner in Hong Kong. The news on travellers associated spread across the globe have also put many countries on alert with the cancellation of tourist visa to all affected countries and postponement of events where international visits were required. A few diagnostic approaches, including quantitative and differential real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, have been recommended for the screening of the individuals at risk. In the absence of any selective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, re-purposed drugs are advocated in many studies. This article discourse the current worldwide situation of COVID-2019 with information on virus, epidemiology, host, the role of animals, effective diagnosis, therapeutics, preventive and control approaches making people aware on the disease outcomes.

20.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Special Issue 1):S114-S118, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-994749

ABSTRACT

Many unanswered questions remain about COVID-19 infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. One such looming concern is the possibility of reinfection of recovered cases. We conducted a literature review on various aspects of this possibility, including the case presentations of relapsed/re-infected patients, the immune response of production of neutralizing antibodies, immunity in response to coronavirus during SARS-CoV2 and MERS, possibility of false-positive results of real-time polymerase chain reaction. We concluded that further studies are required to establish whether relapse or reinfection is possible firmly. However, these possibilities point towards the needs of change in the protocol of isolation, quarantine, and discharge. It also undermines the role of the upcoming vaccine in disease prevention and treatment. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

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