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1.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 30(2):168-179, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1887734

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Infectious disease outbreaks frequently cause illness and death among Healthcare Workers (HCWs). We compare strategies from recent, past and ongoing outbreak measures used to protect HCWs, including those facing additional challenges such as racial disparities, violence and stigmatization. Outbreaks and pandemics superimposed on countries with preexisting crises have also affected emergency response to these viral outbreaks. Strategies to protect HCWs include adherence to recommended infection prevention and control measures;new technology such as rapid point-of-care tests and remote monitoring;adopting national public health preparedness plans to ensure the supply and allocation of PPE, staff, and testing supplies;occupational health and mental health support services. Lessons learned from recent pandemics should be used by Infection Prevention and Control and Occupational Health staff to refine preparedness plans to protect HCWs better.

2.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(6)2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884358

ABSTRACT

Users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have a lower intention to receive vaccines. Furthermore, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region are among the most affected areas by the COVID-19 pandemics and present a high proportion of CAM users. Therefore, this study evaluates the association between the consumption of herbal supplements or homeopathic remedies to prevent COVID-19 and the intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in the LAC region. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) survey with Facebook to assess COVID-19 beliefs, behaviours, and norms. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using generalized linear models of the Poisson family with the log link function. The prevalence of the use of products to prevent COVID-19 was the following: consumption of herbal supplements (7.2%), use of homeopathic remedies (4.8%), and consumption of garlic, ginger, and lemon (11.8%). An association was found between using herbal supplements (19.0% vs. 12.8%; aPR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.30-1.58), the use of homeopathic remedies (20.3% vs. 12.3%; aPR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.25-1.98), and the consumption of garlic, ginger, and lemon (18.9% vs. 11.9%; aPR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.50-1.61) and non-intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. In the LAC population, there is an association between using herbal supplements, using homeopathic remedies and consuming garlic, ginger, and lemon to prevent infection by COVID-19 and non-intention to vaccinate against this disease. Therefore, it is necessary to design targeted strategies for groups that consume these products as preventive measures against COVID-19 to increase vaccination coverage and expand the information regarding transmission and prevention strategies for SARS-CoV-2.

3.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1876863
4.
5.
Inflammation ; 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872583

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and leads to multiorgan dysfunction. Mitochondrial dynamics are fundamental to protect against environmental insults, but they are highly susceptible to viral infections. Defective mitochondria are potential sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Infection with SARS-CoV-2 damages mitochondria, alters autophagy, reduces nitric oxide (NO), and increases both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOX) and ROS. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibited activated toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-), leucine-rich repeat (LRR-), pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. The activation of TLRs and NLRP3 by SARS-CoV-2 induces interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-18, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Herein, we outline the inflammatory circuit of COVID-19 and what occurs behind the scene, the interplay of NOX/ROS and their role in hypoxia and thrombosis, and the important role of ROS scavengers to reduce COVID-19-related inflammation.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869863

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global disruption of several services, including routine immunizations. This effect has been described in several countries, but there are few detailed studies in Latin America and no reports in Ecuador. Therefore, this work aims to quantify the reduction in routine immunizations for infants during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador. 2018, 2019, and 2020 data were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Ecuador. The number of doses and the extent of immunization coverage was descriptively compared for four vaccines: rotavirus (ROTA), poliovirus (PV), pneumococcal (PCV), and pentavalent (PENTA) vaccines. There was no significant difference in doses applied during the 2018 and 2019 years. However, a significant (p < 0.05) drop of 137,000 delivered doses was observed in 2020 compared to the pre-pandemic years. Reductions in the percentage of coverage were more pronounced for the PENTA vaccine (17.7%), followed by PV (16.4%), ROTA (12%), and PCV vaccines (10.7%). Spatial analysis shows a severe impact on vaccination coverage on provinces from the Coast and Highland regions of the country. The pandemic has significantly impacted the immunization programs for infants across Ecuador. This retrospective analysis shows an urgent need to protect vulnerable zones and populations during public health emergencies.

9.
Infectio ; 26(2): 137-144, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1863552

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Sintetizar las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de los niños de COVID-19 con EK, KLD y MIS-C. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en 4 bases de datos y preprints hasta el 31 de Mayo del 2021. Se incluyeron reportes/series de caso que evaluaron las caracte rísticas clínicas del EK, KLD o MIS-C en pacientes pediátricos con COVID-19. Resultados: Se incluyeron 16 estudios (seis informes de casos y diez series de casos, 367 pacientes en total, 58 pacientes con EK, 87 con KLD y 290 pacientes con MIS-C); con edades entre los 6 meses y los 10 años, y el 62% eran mujeres. Se observó COVID-19 positivo en 75,2%. Respecto a EK, KLD y MIS-C, las características clínicas repor tadas fueron compatibles con los cuadros diagnósticos estandarizados en el contexto de COVID-19. La duración de la hospitalización fue de 5 a 14 días para EK y de 4,3 a 13 para MIS-C. Once pacientes con MIS-C (2,8%) necesitaron ECMO. Seis pacientes con MIS-C fueron reportados muertos. Ocho estudios reportaron pacientes en la UCI. Conclusiones: EK o KLD puede asociarse a COVID-19 en niños, y pueden complicarse con MIS-C. El tiempo de hospitalización es prolongado si se presenta EK o KLD asociado a COVID-19 en niños.


Abstract Objective: To synthesize the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 children with MIS-C, KLD and EK. Methods: Databases and preprints were searched until May 31, 2021. Reports/case series that evaluated the clinical features of EK, KLD, or MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 were included. Results: Sixteen studies were included (six case reports and ten case series, 367 patients total, 58 patients with EK, 87 with KLD, and 290 patients with MIS-C); with ages ranging from 6 months to 10 years, and 62% were female. Positive COVID-19 was observed in 75.2%. Regarding EK, KLD and MIS-C, the reported clinical characteristics were compatible with the standardized diagnostic pictures in the context of COVID-19. The duration of hospitalization was 5 to 14 days for EK and 4.3 to 13 for MIS-C. Eleven patients with MIS-C (2.8%) needed ECMO. Eleven patients with MIS-C (2.8%) needed ECMO. Six patients with MIS-C were reported dead. Eight studies reported patients in the ICU. Conclusions: Children with COVID-19 develop EK or KLD, and can be complicated by MIS-C. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment measures are needed.

11.
Curr Trop Med Rep ; : 1-8, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827422

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been a high influx of publications on the SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 worldwide in the recent few months as very little was known about them. Nepal too had a substantial number of publications on the same, and there was a need to track the most relevant and impactful to the scientific community through bibliometric analysis. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 72 publications were analyzed. Bagmati Pradesh (88%) and its district, Kathmandu (77%), was with the most publications. There were no publications from Gandaki and Karnali Province. Most of the publications were in the international medical journals (82%), 53% chose European journals to publish, and 15.27% were related to and published in psychology journals. The majority were original articles (39%) and mostly related to public health (20.83%). 59.7% of the papers had Nepalese as the first author. Most of them were affiliated with Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital and Patan Academy of Health Sciences. SUMMARY: Our analysis suggests a need to shift the type of studies from observational studies to studies oriented more towards the therapeutic and clinical trials of available medicines and patient care management. Similarly, the bibliometric analysis gives an overall picture of Nepali medical research's publication status around the globe.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822453

ABSTRACT

Information on the effects of a heterologous booster in adult patients first vaccinated with the BBIBP-CorV vaccine is limited. This prospective cohort study evaluated the humoral response of 152 healthcare workers (HCWs) from a private laboratory in Lima (Peru) before and after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine, with a seven-month interval since the BBIBP-CorV doses. We employed the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and the cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody (NAbs) assays to evaluate anti-S-RBD IgG and NAbs, respectively. Of the 152 HCWs, 79 (51.98%) were previously infected (PI) with SARS-CoV-2 and 73 (48.02%) were not previously infected (NPI). The proportion of HCWs with positive NAbs, seven months after the BBIBP-CorV immunization, was 49.31% in NPI and 92.40% in PI. After the booster, this ratio increased to 100% in both groups. The anti-S-RBD IgG and NAbs in the HCWs' NPI increased by 32.7 and 3.95 times more, respectively. In HCWs' PI, this increment was 5 and 1.42 times more, respectively. There was no statistical association between the history of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and the titer of anti-S-RBD IgG and NAbs after the booster. The humoral immunity presented a robust increase after receiving the BNT162b2 booster and was more pronounced in NPI.

14.
Int J STD AIDS ; 33(7): 652-659, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior research has established some risk factors for an increased risk of severe disease and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the impact of HIV infection on SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and severity is a significant gap in the literature. In the same way, not many studies across the globe have analyzed the degree of vaccination willingness among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and considerations regarding prioritizing this population during vaccination plans, particularly in developing countries. METHODS: A descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. Self-completed electronic surveys directed to PLWHA were performed via Twitter in February 2021, using accounts of HIV activists. RESULTS: 460 (87.1%) participants were willing to be vaccinated with any COVID-19 vaccine. The reasons for that were listed as 1) the belief that vaccination prevents both the COVID-19 infection (81.3%) as well as being a spreader (52.2%); 2) having a high occupational risk of becoming infected with COVID-19 (22%); and 3) the belief that they would be at high risk of death because of COVID-19 (21.3%). Only 56 (10.6%) participants expressed hesitancy toward vaccination, and 12 (2.2%) stated they did not want to get vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Our results may support the prioritization of people living with HIV during the implementation of vaccination plans in developing countries. New strategies should be adopted to overcome the hesitancy and unwillingness toward the COVID-19 vaccination, especially in populations with risk factors for severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Curr Trop Med Rep ; 9(2): 61-71, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777886

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a remarkably accelerated development of vaccines worldwide. However, an effective distribution system is crucial for vaccination at a national level. Ecuador was one of the first Latin American countries to be most severely affected by the pandemic. It has been struggling to expand its vaccination drive and requires a strategy that provides an achievable vaccination rate and maintains its primary care services. This study aims to provide an efficient vaccination model to achieve herd immunity by utilizing the country's existing infrastructure (the centralized electoral system) for mass vaccination. Recent Findings: The national electoral data from 2017 and 2021 were used to create estimates for the proposed vaccination model. Two model variations, total personnel, needed, and the number of days needed to vaccinate 50%, 75%, and 100% of the population were considered. The numbers of vaccines needed, and vaccination sites were estimated based on the current number of registered voters and polling stations. The results from the proposed model show that 17,892,353 people can be vaccinated, at 40,093 polling stations, by 90,209 personnel if one vaccinator was available per polling station. Summary: Based on this model, even a conservative estimate shows that 12.56 days are needed to achieve herd immunity, and 16.74 days are needed to vaccinate the entire population of Ecuador. Additionally, we propose that this vaccination model can be used as a blueprint for any country to address similar catastrophes in the future. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40475-022-00251-y.

17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101623, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(4): e219-e220, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751540
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