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1.
Proteins ; 89(9): 1134-1144, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188037

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused substantially more infections, deaths, and economic disruptions than the 2002-2003 SARS-CoV. The key to understanding SARS-CoV-2's higher infectivity lies partly in its host receptor recognition mechanism. Experiments show that the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, which serves as the primary receptor for both CoVs, binds to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of CoV-2's spike protein stronger than SARS-CoV's spike RBD. The molecular basis for this difference in binding affinity, however, remains unexplained from X-ray structures. To go beyond insights gained from X-ray structures and investigate the role of thermal fluctuations in structure, we employ all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Microseconds-long simulations reveal that while CoV and CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interfaces have similar conformational binding modes, CoV-2 spike interacts with ACE2 via a larger combinatorics of polar contacts, and on average, makes 45% more polar contacts. Correlation analysis and thermodynamic calculations indicate that these differences in the density and dynamics of polar contacts arise from differences in spatial arrangements of interfacial residues, and dynamical coupling between interfacial and non-interfacial residues. These results recommend that ongoing efforts to design spike-ACE2 peptide blockers will benefit from incorporating dynamical information as well as allosteric coupling effects.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Allosteric Regulation , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Thermodynamics
2.
The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications ; : 10943420211001565, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1153941

ABSTRACT

Time-to-solution for structure-based screening of massive chemical databases for COVID-19 drug discovery has been decreased by an order of magnitude, and a virtual laboratory has been deployed at scale on up to 27,612 GPUs on the Summit supercomputer, allowing an average molecular docking of 19,028 compounds per second. Over one billion compounds were docked to two SARS-CoV-2 protein structures with full optimization of ligand position and 20 poses per docking, each in under 24 hours. GPU acceleration and high-throughput optimizations of the docking program produced 350? mean speedup over the CPU version (50? speedup per node). GPU acceleration of both feature calculation for machine-learning based scoring and distributed database queries reduced processing of the 2.4 TB output by orders of magnitude. The resulting 50? speedup for the full pipeline reduces an initial 43 day runtime to 21 hours per protein for providing high-scoring compounds to experimental collaborators for validation assays.

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