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J Med Virol ; 94(1): 229-239, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544339


Observational studies indicate that pleural effusion has an association with risk and the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 disease; however, the available literature on this area is inconsistent. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the correlation between COVID-19 disease and pleural effusion. A rigorous literature search was conducted using multiple databases. All eligible observational studies were included from around the globe. The pooled prevalence and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the random effect model. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were produced to report overall effect size using random effect models for severity and mortality outcomes. Funnel plots, Egger regression tests, and Begg-Mazumdar's rank correlation test were used to appraise publication bias. Data from 23 studies including 6234 COVID-19 patients was obtained. The overall prevalence of pleural effusion in COVID-19 patients was 9.55% (95% CI, I2 = 92%). Our findings also indicated that the presence of pleural effusions associated with increased risk of severity of disease(OR = 5.08, 95% CI 3.14-8.22, I2 = 77.4%) and mortality due to illness(OR = 4.53, 95% CI 2.16-9.49, I2 = 66%) compared with patients without pleural effusion. Sensitivity analyses illustrated a similar effect size while decreasing the heterogeneity. No significant publication bias was evident in the meta-analysis. The presence of pleural effusion can assist as a prognostic factor to evaluate the risk of worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients hence, it is recommended that hospitalized COVID-19 patients with pleural effusion should be managed on an early basis.

COVID-19/complications , Pleural Effusion/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14470, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301490


BACKGROUND: Covid-19 is an extremely contagious illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The cardiac involvement in such a public health emergency disease has not been well studied and a conflicting evidence exists on this issue. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review article aimed to compile and illustrate clinical characteristics, diagnostic findings, management, and outcomes manifesting in myocarditis linked with Covid-19. METHODS: A literature search was accomplished for published eligible articles with MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases. All eligible case reports and case series were included from around the world without any language restrictions. For this review, inclusion criteria were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection cases reporting a diagnosis of acute myocarditis. RESULTS: Data from 41 studies describing myocarditis in 42 Covid-19 patients was obtained. The median age of these patients was 43.4 years, with 71.4% of them being men. Fever was the most prevalent presenting symptoms seen in 57% of patients. Hypertension was the most pervasive comorbidity accompanying these patients. Cardiac biomarkers troponin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were raised in almost 90% and 87% of patients, respectively. Electrocardiogram findings were nonspecific and included ST-segment and T-wave changes. Echocardiogram commonly showed left ventricular systolic dysfunction with increased heart size. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) exhibited myocardial edema and injury. The most prevalent histopathological feature appreciated was diffuse lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates. Antivirals and corticosteroids were the most frequently used medications. About 38% of patients also needed vasopressor assistance. Out of 42 patients, 67% recovered, and eight died. CONCLUSION: Because of the risk of a sudden worsening of patients conditions and myocarditis association with considerable mortality and morbidity, a knowledge of this cardiac complication of Covid-19 disease is crucial for healthcare professionals.

COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , Echocardiography , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
Dermatol Ther ; 34(2): e14788, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044098


In this systematic review, we anticipated in summarizing clinical features, histopathological hallmarks, and possible pathology behind the maculopapular skin eruptions occurring in Covid-19 patients. A literature search was executed using MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases for articles published till 20 November 2020. All eligible articles including observational studies, case reports, and case series reporting the maculopapular skin lesion in Covid-19 patients were included. Data were obtained for 354 Covid-19 patients presenting with maculopapular lesions from 40 studies. The mean age of these patients was 53 years, and with 42% of them being male. These maculopapular lesions differed considerably in terms of distribution and appearance, ranging from diffuse erythematous maculopapular lesions to scattered erythematous macules coalescing into papules to maculopapular lesions in plaques. The mean duration of the lesion was 8 days. These lesions were frequently localized on trunks and extremities. Superficial perivascular dermatitis with lymphocytic infiltrate was a histopathological hallmark of these lesions. As these skin lesions may have a possible association with diagnosis, management, prognosis, and severity of the disease, all health practitioners need to be well acquainted with these Covid-19 skin lesions. Also, in the middle of this worldwide pandemic, early identification of this eruption may help manage this infection's further spread.

COVID-19 , Drug Eruptions , Exanthema , Drug Eruptions/diagnosis , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2