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Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925439


Objective: To evaluate clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological features of acute neuroinflammatory disorders (ANIDs) that followed the 2016 Zika epidemic in Colombia. Background: The outbreak of Zika virus infection in Colombia in 2015-2016, produced an increased incidence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and other ANID cases. The Neuroviruses Emerging in the Americas Study (NEAS) network was established in 2016 as a multicenter-based observatory of ANIDs to investigate the role of emerging pathogens in neuroinflammatory diseases. Design/Methods: NEAS serves as a multi-center study based on 13 hospitals in 7 cities in Colombia which study all newly diagnosed patients who fulfill established criteria for GBS, encephalitis, myelitis, meningoencephalitis, or cranial nerve disorders as part of an observational cohort. We analyzed the clinical and epidemiological features of all cases evaluated between January 2016 and September 2021. Results: An observational cohort of 825 patients with ANIDs were recruited during the study period. 58.8% of cases were male with a median age of 43 (IQR 25-58) years. The most frequent ANIDs were GBS (46.1%) and facial nerve palsy (28.7%). The diagnosis of encephalitis (9.5%), myelitis (6.5%), and optic neuritis (5.9%) were less frequent. Patients with GBS were predominantly male (70.6%) and had a median age of 49 (IQR 32-60) years. Interestingly, there was an increase incidence of GBS in 2019. Conclusions: The outbreak of Zika in Colombia produced a marked increase in the incidence of GBS in 2016. Although cases of GBS and other ANIDs continued to emerge after the incidence of Zika infection decreased in July 2016, the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has not produced any significant increase in the incidence of GBS in Colombia.

Elementa-Science of the Anthropocene ; 10(1):20, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883725


This study delves into the photochemical atmospheric changes reported globally during the pandemic by analyzing the change in emissions from mobile sources and the contribution of local meteorology to ozone (O-3) and particle formation in Bogota (Colombia), Santiago (Chile), and Sao Paulo (Brazil). The impact of mobility reductions (50%-80%) produced by the early coronavirus-imposed lockdown was assessed through high-resolution vehicular emission inventories, surface measurements, aerosol optical depth and size, and satellite observations of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. A generalized additive model (GAM) technique was also used to separate the local meteorology and urban patterns from other drivers relevant for O-3 and NO2 formation. Volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased significantly due to motorized trip reductions. In situ nitrogen oxide median surface mixing ratios declined by 70%, 67%, and 67% in Bogota, Santiago, and Sao Paulo, respectively. NO2 column medians from satellite observations decreased by 40%, 35%, and 47%, respectively, which was consistent with the changes in mobility and surface mixing ratio reductions of 34%, 25%, and 34%. However, the ambient NO2 to NOx ratio increased, denoting a shift of the O-3 formation regime that led to a 51%, 36%, and 30% increase in the median O-3 surface mixing ratios in the 3 respective cities. O-3 showed high sensitivity to slight temperature changes during the pandemic lockdown period analyzed. However, the GAM results indicate that O-3 increases were mainly caused by emission changes. The lockdown led to an increase in the median of the maximum daily 8-h average O-3 of between 56% and 90% in these cities.

Infectio ; 26(1):73-77, 2021.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1395616


Introduction: viral acute respiratory infections have been considered of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in pediatrics, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has become an important problem for global public health for its high transmissibility. The objective of the study is to describe the behavior of respiratory viruses detected by RT-PCR in children hospitalized for acute respiratory infection (ARI) in times of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID19 in pediatric care center in Cali Colombia Methodology: observational with a retrospective cross-sectional study. 113 patients older than 28 days and under 18 years in March to November 2020, hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of ARI and Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) positive for respiratory viruses. Results: Predominance of gender male 64.6%. 74.3% with a diagnosis of low ARI, main symptoms presented were cough 92% and fever 74.3%, SARS-CoV-2 identified 53%, Human Rhinovirus / Enterovirus 27.41% and Respiratory Syncytial Virus 15%. 34.5% of the patients required an intensive care unit with mechanical ventilation requirement 15.9% Conclusions: infection by SARS-CoV-2 was more common in hospitalized patients in both general wards as in the pediatric intensive care unit.