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1.
Infectio ; 25(3): 182-188, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1055381

ABSTRACT

Abstract The article presents a general overview on COVID-19 transmission in the context of public transport, particularly applicable to decision making in Latin America. Based on recent findings on COVID-19 transmission and the relative importance of each factor (droplets, fomites, and aerosol routes) in such transmission, we seek to update the discussion on the topic that has generally been based on social distance as the only parameter for reducing the risk of transmission and broadens the vision to integrate ventilation, users' behavior (mask and eye protection use, silence while in the transport system) and travel distance. Recommendations to improve mobility conditions reducing the risk of COVID-19 contagion are provided.


Resumen El artículo presenta una revisión de transmisión de COVID-19 en el contexto de transporte público, con aplicación particular para toma de decisiones en América Latina. Con base en los hallazgos recientes sobre transmisión de Covid-19 y la importancia relativa de cada factor (gotículas, fómites y rutas de aerosoles) en dicha transmisión, buscamos actualizar la discusión sobre el tema que generalmente se ha basado en la "distancia social" como parámetro único de reducción de riesgo de transmisión y amplía esta visión para integrar la ventilación, el comportamiento de usuarios (uso de mascarilla, protección ocular, silencio), y la distancia de viaje. Se indican al final recomendaciones para mejorar las condiciones de movilidad en general sin aumentar el riesgo de contagio de Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transportation , Health Strategies , COVID-19 , Travel , Ventilation , Vision, Ocular , Urban Sanitation , Protection , Latin America
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 749: 141621, 2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713847

ABSTRACT

Lockdown measures led to air pollution decrease in several countries around the world such as China and India, whereas other regions experimented an increase in pollutant concentrations. Northern South America (NSA) was one of those areas where pollution changed during lockdown due to high fire activity. This study aims to analyze, for the first time in NSA, the behavior of selected criteria air pollutants during the implementation of the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown in two high populated cities of the region: Bogotá and Medellín in Colombia. A set of tools including surface measurements, as well as satellite and modeled data were used. 24-hour average concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 were collected from air quality stations for the lockdown period ranging from February 21 to June 30, 2020. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) was used to analyze the fire flux OC as a biomass burning (BB) indicator, and tropospheric NO2 concentrations were retrieved from TROPOMI. The HYSPLIT model was used to analyze back trajectories and fire data were obtained from MODIS sensor measurements. Our analysis shows short-term background NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 concentration reductions of 60%, 44%, and 40%, respectively, for the strict lockdown; and 62%, 58%, and 69% for the relaxed lockdown. Corresponding long-term reductions were of 50%, 32%, and 9% for the strict lockdown; and 37%, 29%, and 19% for the relaxed lockdown. Regional BB increased PM2.5 concentrations by 20 µg/m3 during the strict lockdown, and the Saharan dust event increased PM10 concentrations up to 168 µg/m3 in Bogotá, and 104 µg/m3 in Medellín, bringing an additional risk of morbidity and mortality for population. Regional BB has several causes that need to be properly managed to benefit local air quality improvement plans. Future cleaner transport policies equivalent to reduced lockdown mobility could bring pollution close to WHO guidelines.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Africa, Northern , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Cities , Colombia , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India , North America , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , South America
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