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Front Public Health ; 10: 1058423, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227808


The results from epidemiological studies suggest that environmental noise including aircraft, railway, road traffic, wind turbine, and leisure-related noise is a growing public health concern. According to the WHO, at least 100 million people in the European Union are affected by traffic noise levels above the WHO-recommended thresholds. Environmental noise can adversely affect physical and mental health, as well as wellbeing. Chronic low-level noise exposure typical for most environmental sources is associated with psychophysiological stress causing non-auditory or indirect noise effects leading ultimately to cardiovascular diseases. Among all environmental noise sources, aircraft noise is considered the most annoying, and its leading mechanism of action is autonomic system activation such as increases in heart rate and blood pressure. Previously, we observed that long-term exposure to aircraft noise was associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, arterial stiffness (as assessed by pulse wave velocity), and impaired left ventricular diastolic function. All mentioned above effects are early, subclinical, and potentially reversible changes which preceded late noise effects in the cardiovascular system, that is, established cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. However, even a short-term reduction in aircraft noise exposure as observed during the COVID-19 lockdown may reverse these negative effects on arterial stiffness and blood pressure and may decrease the prevalence of insomnia. In this review, we aimed to critically discuss our obtained results considering recent studies on the influence of aircraft noise (and other traffic noises) on cardiovascular diseases in the context of the WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Noise, Transportation , Humans , Noise, Transportation/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Pulse Wave Analysis/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Aircraft
Hypertension ; 79(2): 325-334, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476907


In a cross-sectional analysis of a case-control study in 2015, we revealed the association between increased arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity) and aircraft noise exposure. In June 2020, we evaluated the long-term effects, and the impact of a sudden decline in noise exposure during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown, on blood pressure and pulse wave velocity, comparing 74 participants exposed to long-term day-evening-night aircraft noise level >60 dB and 75 unexposed individuals. During the 5-year follow-up, the prevalence of hypertension increased in the exposed (42% versus 59%, P=0.048) but not in the unexposed group. The decline in noise exposure since April 2020 was accompanied with a significant decrease of noise annoyance, 24-hour systolic (121.2 versus 117.9 mm Hg; P=0.034) and diastolic (75.1 versus 72.0 mm Hg; P=0.003) blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (10.2 versus 8.8 m/s; P=0.001) in the exposed group. Less profound decreases of these parameters were noticed in the unexposed group. Significant between group differences were observed for declines in office and night-time diastolic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. Importantly, the difference in the reduction of pulse wave velocity between exposed and unexposed participants remained significant after adjustment for covariates (-1.49 versus -0.35 m/s; P=0.017). The observed difference in insomnia prevalence between exposed and unexposed individuals at baseline was no more significant at follow-up. Thus, long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the prevalence of hypertension and accelerate arterial stiffening. However, even short-term noise reduction, as experienced during the COVID-19 lockdown, may reverse those unfavorable effects.

Aircraft , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure , Noise, Transportation/adverse effects , Noise/adverse effects , Quarantine , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Aged , Arteriosclerosis/epidemiology , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Female , Harm Reduction , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Urban Health