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1.
Journal of Clinical Rheumatology ; 29(4 Supplement 1):S4, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323776

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Patients with immune-mediated diseases achieve lower seroconversion rates to COVID19 vaccines compared to healthy controls. The aim of this study was to assess the SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and T-cell responses after a two-dose regimen of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method(s): Observational study. Patients with RA, >=18 years of age, who were vaccinated according to the Argentine National Health Ministry's vaccination strategy were included. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, neutralizing activity and specific T-cell responses were assessed after the first and second doses. Result(s): A total of 120 RA patients were included. Mostly, homologous regimens were used, including Gam-COVID-Vac (27.5%), ChAdOx1 (24.2%), BBIBP-CorV (22.5%) and BNT162b2 (0.8%), while the most frequent combination of vaccines was Gam-COVID-Vac/mRNA-1273 (21.7%). After the second dose 81.7% presented anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 70.0% neutralizing activity and 65.3% specific T-cell response. The use of BBIBP-CorV, treatment with abatacept (ABA) and rituximab (RTX) were associated with undetectable antibodies and no neutralizing activity after two doses of vaccine. BBIBP-CorV was also associated with the absence of T-cell response. The total incidence of adverse events was 357.1 events/1000 doses: significantly lower with BBIBP-CorV (166.7 events/1000 doses, p alpha 0.02). Conclusion(s): In this cohort of patients with RA who received 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine, according to the Argentine strategic vaccination planwhich included homologous and heterologous regimens, two of ten did not develop IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2, 70% presented neutralizing activity and 65% specific T-cell response. The use of BBIBP-CorV was associated with deficient humoral and cellular response, while treatment with ABA and RTXaffected the development of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 and neutralizing activity.

2.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1679, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008997

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination for COVID-19 is an essential tool to fght the pandemic. Evidence suggests that patients with immune mediated infammatory diseases (IMIDs) have less response. The application of a booster shot is a strategy that has been implemented in this population, however there is scarce information about its efficacy. Objectives: To assess the humoral and cellular immune response after a third dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with undetectable antibodies titles after primary regimen of two doses. Methods: Observational study. Patients with RA (ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria) from two rheumatology centers, ≥18 years old, with no seroconversion after two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, who received a third dose of either mRNA or vector-based vaccines (BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) were included. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, neutralising activity and T cell responses were assessed between 21 and 40 days after the third dose. Sociodemographic data, comorbid-ities, treatment, vaccine applied and the presence of adverse events (AE) were recorded. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis. Chi2 or Fischer test and T test. Results: A total of 21 non-responder patients were included, all of them females with a mean age of 63.7 years (SD 11,6) and mean disease duration of 15.8 years (SD 8). Most of them (81%) reported comorbidities, being the most frequent arterial hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. At vaccination time, 6 (28.6%) were receiving glucocorticoids, 3 of them ≥10 mg/day, 17 c-DMARDs (methotrexate 57.1%) and 18 (85.1%) b-DMARDs, 6 abatacept (ABT) and 4 rituximab (RTX). Regarding the primary vaccination regimen, 13 (61.9%) received two doses of BBIBP-CorV, 3 (14.3%) Gam-COVID-Vac, 3 (14.3%) ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 2 (9.5%) a mix regimen of Gam-COVID-Vac/mRNA-1273. The majority (95.2%) received BNT162b2 vaccine and only one of them ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, with a mean time between the second and third dose of 151,4 days (SD 46,4). After the third dose, 90.5% of the patients presented detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 76.2% presented neutralizing activity. The median of neutralizing antibodies titers was 1/12 (IQR 1/7-1/48). Both patients who did not present detectable antibodies were obese, recieved BBIBP-CorV during the primary regimen and BNT162b2 as the third dose, one of them was taking methotrexate and ABT and the other one RTX. Compared to other treatments, ABT and RTX was associated with no neutralizing activity in 4 (80%) patients and lower titers of neutralizing antibodies [median 1/3 (IQR 0-1/20) vs median 1/8 (IQR 1/4-1/128), p=0.197]. A T-cell response was present in 41.2% of all patients after the second dose, increasing to 75% after the third dose. The use of ABT was associated with a lower frequency of T-cell response (80% vs 20%, p=0.014). Sixteen (76.1%) patients reported at least one AE, 66.7% injection site reaction and 25% fu-like syndrome. Conclusion: In this RA cohort who failed to seroconvert after two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 90.5% presented detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 75% T-cell responce after a third dose. The use of ABT was associated with a lower frequency of T-cell response. This data highlights the importance of a third vaccine in this group of patients.

3.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:930-931, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008849

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with rheumatic diseases (RD) have been excluded from SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials. Though data appear to show safety and efficacy, mostly evidence remains in mRNA vaccines. However in our country, adenovirus and inactivated vaccines, as well as heterologous schemes are frequently used. Objectives: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination in patients with RD from de the SAR-CoVAC registry and to compare them with patients who got infected before vaccination. Additionally, factors associated with COVID-19 unfavorable outcome were assessed. Methods: Adult patients with RD who have been vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2 were consecutively included between June 1st and December 21st, 2021. Con-frmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (RT-PCR o serology) was reported by the treated physician. Infection after an incomplete scheme was defned when the event was diagnosed at least 14 days after frst dose;and after a complete scheme when it occurred > 14 days after second dose. Homologous scheme is defned by two same doses of vaccine and heterologous by two different doses. Patients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were excluded. To compare SARS-CoV-2 infection characteristics in not vaccinated patients, subjects from the SAR-COVID registry, which includes patients with RD and SARS-CoV-2 infection, were matched 2:1 by gender, age and RD. WHO-Ordinal Scale ≥5 was used to defne unfavorable infection outcome. Descriptive statics, Chi2 test, Fischer test, T test and ANOVA were used. Results: A total of 1350 patients from the SAR COVAC registry were included, 67 (5%) presented SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination. The later were mostly (72%) females with a mean age of 57 (SD 15) years old. The most frequent RD were rheumatoid arthritis (41%), psoriatic arthritis (12%) and systemic lupus erythematosus (10%). At vaccination, most of them (75%) had low disease activity or remission, 19% were taking steroids, 39% methotrex-ate, 27% bDMARDs and 6% JAK inhibitors. A total of 11 (16%) patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection <14 days after the frst vaccine dose, 39 (58%) after an incomplete scheme and 17 (25 %) following a complete one. In the incomplete scheme group, 59% received Gam-COVID-Vac, 31% ChAdOx1 nCov-19 and 10% BBIBP-CorV;and in patients with complete scheme 47%, 24% and 29%, respectively. No event was reported after a complete heterologous scheme. No signifcant differences regarding sociodemoghraphic characteristics, RD, disease treatment, type of vaccine and regimen was found between in those with infection and those without it. After vaccination only 8 (12%) of the patients who got infected had an unfavorable course, 88% of them following an incomplete scheme (5 received Gam-COVID-Vac, 1 ChAdOx1 nCov-19 and 1 BBIBP-CorV) and one subject after a complete homologous Gam-COVID-Vac scheme. Having an unfavorable outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated to: male gender [63% vs 24%, p=0.036], older age [mean 70 years (SD 7) vs 55 years (SD 15), p=0.005], being Caucasian [100% vs 54%, p=0.018], higher education [mean 17 years (SD 4) vs 12 years (SD 4), p=0.010], the presence of comorbid-ities [100% vs 39%, p=0.001, having pulmonary disease [37% vs 5%, p=0.019], dyslipidemia [63% vs 17%, p=0.011] and arterial hypertension [63% vs 24%, p=0.036], RD, treatments, disease activity and types of vaccines received were comparable between groups. When comparing patients with and without vaccination prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, those who received at least one dose of vaccine had less frequently severe COVID-19 (12% vs 24%, p=0.067) and presented lower mortality due to COVID-19 (3% vs 6%, p=0.498). However these differences did not reach statistical signifcance. Conclusion: In the SAR-CoVAC registry 5% of the patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination, most of them mild and 25% after a complete scheme. Any vaccine was associated with severe COVID-19. When comparing with non-vaccinated patients, those with at least one dose, had less frequently severe disease and died due COVID-19.

4.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1665-1666, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008843

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently there is little information on the efficacy and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated diseases and/or under immunosuppressive treatment in our country, where different types of vaccines and mix regimens are used. For this reason, the Argentine Society of Rheumatology (SAR) with the Argentine Society of Psoriasis (SOARPSO) set out to develop a national register of patients with rheumatic and immune-mediated infammatory diseases (IMIDs) who have received a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in order to assess their efficacy and safety in this population. Objectives: To assess SARS-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy and safety in patients with rheumatic and IMIDs. Methods: SAR-CoVAC is a national, multicenter and observational registry. Adult patients with a diagnosis of rheumatic or IMIDs who have been vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2 were consecutively included between June 1st and September 17th, 2021. Sociodemographic data, comorbidities, underlying rheumatic or IMIDs, treatments received and their modifcation prior to vaccination and history of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded. In addition, the date and place of vaccination, type of vaccine applied, scheme and indication will be registered. Finally, adverse events (AE), as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection after the application of the vaccine were documented Results: A total of 1234 patients were included, 79% were female, with a mean age of 57.8 (SD 14.1) years. The most frequent diseases were rheumatoid arthritis (41.2%), osteoarthritis (14.5%), psoriasis (12.7%) and spondy-loarthritis (12.3%). Most of them were in remission (28.5%) and low disease activity (41.4%). At the time of vaccination, 21% were receiving glucocorti-coid treatment, 35.7% methotrexate, 29.7% biological (b) Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) and 5.4% JAK inhibitors. Before vaccine application 16.9% had had a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Regarding the frst dose of the vaccine, the most of the patients (51.1%) received Gam-COV-ID-Vac, followed by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (32.8%) and BBIBP-CorV (14.5%). In a lesser proportion, BNT162b2 (0.6%), Ad26.COV2.S (0.2%) and Coro-naVac (0.2%) vaccines were used. Almost half of them (48.8%) completed the scheme, 12.5% were mix regimenes, the most frequent being Gam-COVID-Vac/mRNA-1273. The median time between doses was 51days (IQR 53). More than a quarter (25.9%) of the patients reported at least one AE after the frst dose and 15.9% after the second. The fu-like syndrome and local hypersensitivity were the most frequent manifestations. There was one case of mild anaphylaxis. No patient was hospitalized. Altogether, the incidence of AE was 246.5 events/1000 doses. BBIBP-CorV presented signifcantly lower incidence of AE in comparison with the other types of vaccines. (118.5 events/1000 doses, p<0.002 in all cases) Regarding efficacy, 63 events of SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported after vaccination, 19% occurred before 14 days post-vaccination, 57.1% after the frst dose (>14 days) and 23.8% after the second. In most cases (85.9%) the infection was asymptomatic or had an outpatient course and 2 died due to COVID-19. Conclusion: In this national cohort of patients with rheumatic and IMIDs vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2, the most widely used vaccines were Gam-COVID-Vac and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, approximately half completed the schedule and in most cases homologously. A quarter of the patients presented some AE, while 5.1% presented SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination, in most cases mild.

5.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925234

ABSTRACT

Objective: NA Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system thought to be caused by environmental factors to genetic susceptible individuals, where there is autoimmunity towards myelin components. Given the wide variety of symptoms, etiology and mimickers, ADEM is a diagnosis of exclusion, making difficult a prompt diagnosis. The pathogenesis associated between COVID-19 and ADEM is unknown, however, it could be secondary to immune-mediated mechanisms or molecular mimicry, creating a neuro-inflammatory response. Design/Methods: A previously healthy 22-year-old Puerto Rican male presented to the ED with altered mental status, incoherent speech, imbalance, and dizziness of 2 months progression. Neurological examination was remarkable for slow mentation, positive right Hoffman, left leg weakness and bilateral sustained clonus. Brain MRI showed innumerable foci of increased T2/FLAIR signal intensity throughout supra and infratentorial gray and white matter, none showing contrast enhancement. CSF with evidence of high protein levels, WBC of 7 (100% mononuclear) and normal glucose levels. Extensive workup for evaluation of infectious, demyelinating, inflammatory and vascular etiologies came back negative. Patient with recent history of gastrointestinal symptoms, reason why COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test was performed with positive IgG results 2 months prior to our evaluation. Patient was treated with intravenous steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin, with marked clinical improvement. Results: NA Conclusions: Here we present a case of atypical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifestation of a Puerto Rican male patient that 2 weeks after detecting SARS-COV-2 on his blood neurological symptoms started to develop. This is the first case of a young Puerto Rican patient without any other comorbidities where an association of COVID-19 infection and ADEM was found. Since ADEM if a diagnosis exclusion, it is vital to being able to distinguish this syndrome when it comes to a patient with history of COVID-19 infection and vaccine for prompt management.

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