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1.
Vaccine: X ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2072942

ABSTRACT

Introduction Achieving high COVID-19 vaccination coverage in homeless shelters is critical in preventing morbidity, mortality, and outbreaks, however, vaccination coverage remains lower among people experiencing homelessness (PEH) than the general population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to retrospectively describe attitudes and identify factors associated with change in COVID-19 vaccination intent among shelter residents and staff during March 2020 – August 2021. To identify factors associated with change in COVID-19 vaccine intent becoming more positive overall compared to other attitudes, we utilized a Poisson model to calculate Risk Ratios with robust standard errors, adjusting for confounding by shelter site and demographic variables determined a priori. Results From July 12 – August 2, 2021, 97 residents and 20 staff participated in surveys across six shelters in Seattle King County, Washington. Intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 increased from 45.3% (n=53) when recalling attitudes in March 2020 to 74.4% (n=87) as of August 2021, and was similar among residents and staff. Many participants (43.6%, n=51) indicated feeling increasingly accepting about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine since March 2020, while 13.7% (n=16) changed back and forth, 10.3% (n=12) became more hesitant, and 32.5% (n=38) had no change in intent. In the model examining the relationship between becoming more positive about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine compared to all other attitudes (n=116), we found a 57.2% increase in vaccine acceptability (RR 1.57;95% CI: 1.01, 2.45) among those who reported worsening mental health since the start of the pandemic. Conclusions Findings highlight opportunities to improve communication with residents and staff about COVID-19 vaccination and support a need for continued dialogue and a person-centered approach to understanding the sociocultural complexities and dynamism of vaccine attitudes at shelters. Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT04141917

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2343-2347, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054907

ABSTRACT

To determine the epidemiology of human parainfluenza virus in homeless shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed data and sequences from respiratory specimens collected in 23 shelters in Washington, USA, during 2019-2021. Two clusters in children were genetically similar by shelter of origin. Shelter-specific interventions are needed to reduce these infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Washington/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S193-S204, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Households have emerged as important venues for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. Little is known, however, regarding the magnitude and determinants of household transmission in increasingly vaccinated populations. METHODS: From September 2020 to January 2022, symptomatic nonhospitalized individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection by RNA detection were identified within 5 days of symptom onset; all individuals resided with at least 1 other SARS-CoV-2-uninfected household member. These infected persons (cases) and their household members (contacts) were subsequently followed with questionnaire-based measurement and serial nasal specimen collection. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 infection among contacts. RESULTS: We evaluated 42 cases and their 74 household contacts. Among the contacts, 32 (43%) became infected, of whom 5 (16%) were asymptomatic; 81% of transmissions occurred by 5 days after the case's symptom onset. From 21 unvaccinated cases, 14-day cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among contacts was 18/40 (45% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 29%-62%]), most of whom were unvaccinated. From 21 vaccinated cases, 14-day cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 14/34 (41% [95% CI, 25%-59%]) among all contacts and 12/29 (41% [95% CI, 24%-61%]) among vaccinated contacts. At least 1 comorbid condition among cases and 10 or more days of RNA detection in cases were associated with increased risk of infection among contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Among households including individuals with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, both vaccinated-to-vaccinated and unvaccinated-to-unvaccinated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to household contacts was common. Because vaccination alone did not notably reduce risk of infection, household contacts will need to employ additional interventions to avoid infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , RNA
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(8): ofac390, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001405

ABSTRACT

Background: Households are common places for spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We investigated factors associated with household transmission and acquisition of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Households with children age <18 years were enrolled into prospective, longitudinal cohorts and followed from August 2020 to August 2021 in Utah, September 2020 to August 2021 in New York City, and November 2020 to October 2021 in Maryland. Participants self-collected nasal swabs weekly and with onset of acute illness. Swabs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We assessed factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 acquisition using a multilevel logistic regression adjusted for household size and clustering and SARS-CoV-2 transmission using a logistic regression adjusted for household size. Results: Among 2053 people (513 households) enrolled, 180 people (8.8%; in 76 households) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Compared with children age <12 years, the odds of acquiring infection were lower for adults age ≥18 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.14-0.87); however, this may reflect vaccination status, which protected against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition (aOR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.91). The odds of onward transmission were similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic primary cases (aOR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.35-2.93) and did not differ by age (12-17 years vs <12 years: aOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.20-5.62; ≥18 years vs <12 years: aOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.52-5.83). Conclusions: Adults had lower odds of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 compared with children, but this association might be influenced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, which was primarily available for adults and protective against infection. In contrast, all ages, regardless of symptoms and COVID-19 vaccination, had similar odds of transmitting SARS-CoV-2. Our findings underscore the importance of SARS-CoV-2 mitigation measures for persons of all ages.

5.
Lancet Regional Health. Americas ; 15:100348-100348, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998577

ABSTRACT

Background The circulation of respiratory viruses poses a significant health risk among those residing in congregate settings. Data are limited on seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in homeless shelter settings. Methods We analysed data from a clinical trial and SARS-CoV-2 surveillance study at 23 homeless shelter sites in King County, Washington between October 2019-May 2021. Eligible participants were shelter residents aged ≥3 months with acute respiratory illness. We collected enrolment data and nasal samples for respiratory virus testing using multiplex RT-PCR platform including HCoV. Beginning April 1, 2020, eligibility expanded to shelter residents and staff regardless of symptoms. HCoV species was determined by RT-PCR with species-specific primers, OpenArray assay or genomic sequencing for samples with an OpenArray relative cycle threshold <22. Findings Of the 14,464 samples from 3281 participants between October 2019-May 2021, 107 were positive for HCoV from 90 participants (median age 40 years, range: 0·9-81 years, 38% female). HCoV-HKU1 was the most common species identified before and after community-wide mitigation. No HCoV-positive samples were identified between May 2020-December 2020. Adults aged ≥50 years had the highest detection of HCoV (11%) among virus-positive samples among all age-groups. Species and sequence data showed diversity between and within HCoV species over the study period. Interpretation HCoV infections occurred in all congregate homeless shelter site age-groups with the greatest proportion among those aged ≥50 years. Species and sequencing data highlight the complexity of HCoV epidemiology within and between shelters sites. Funding Gates Ventures, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Supplement_3): S304-S314, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in all people, including those experiencing homelessness. RV epidemiology in homeless shelters is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional homeless shelter study in King County, Washington, October 2019-May 2021. Shelter residents or guardians aged ≥3 months reporting acute respiratory illness completed questionnaires and submitted nasal swabs. After 1 April 2020, enrollment expanded to residents and staff regardless of symptoms. Samples were tested by multiplex RT-PCR for respiratory viruses. A subset of RV-positive samples was sequenced. RESULTS: There were 1066 RV-positive samples with RV present every month of the study period. RV was the most common virus before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (43% and 77% of virus-positive samples, respectively). Participants from family shelters had the highest prevalence of RV. Among 131 sequenced samples, 33 RV serotypes were identified with each serotype detected for ≤4 months. CONCLUSIONS: RV infections persisted through community mitigation measures and were most prevalent in shelters housing families. Sequencing showed a diversity of circulating RV serotypes, each detected over short periods of time. Community-based surveillance in congregate settings is important to characterize respiratory viral infections during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04141917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Homeless Persons , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , Rhinovirus/genetics , Washington/epidemiology
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0103322, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879118

ABSTRACT

Respiratory specimen collection materials shortages hampers severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. We compared specimen alternatives and evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNA stability under simulated shipping conditions. We compared concordance of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 from flocked midturbinate swabs (MTS) in viral transport media (VTM), foam MTS without VTM, and saliva. Specimens were collected between August 2020 and April 2021 from three prospective cohorts. We compared RT-PCR cycle quantification (Cq) for Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), and the Open Reading Frame 1ab (ORF) genes for flocked MTS and saliva specimens tested before and after exposure to a range of storage temperatures (4-30°C) and times (2, 3, and 7 days). Of 1,900 illnesses with ≥2 specimen types tested, 335 (18%) had SARS-CoV-2 detected in ≥1 specimen; 304 (91%) were concordant across specimen types. Among illnesses with SARS-CoV-2 detection, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94-98%) were positive on flocked MTS, 99% (95% CI: 97-100%) on saliva, and 89% (95% CI: 84-93%) on foam MTS. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in flocked MTS and saliva stored up to 30°C for 7 days. All specimen types provided highly concordant SARS-CoV-2 results. These findings support a range of viable options for specimen types, collection, and transport methods that may facilitate SARS-CoV-2 testing during supply and personnel shortages. IMPORTANCE Findings from this analysis indicate that (1) self-collection of flocked and foam MTS and saliva samples is feasible in both adults and children, (2) foam MTS with VTM and saliva are both viable and reasonable alternatives to traditional flocked MTS in VTM for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and (3) these sample types may be stored and transported at ambient temperatures for up to 7 days without compromising sample quality. These findings support methods of sample collection for SARS-CoV-2 detection that may facilitate widespread community testing in the setting of supply and personnel shortages during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Specimen Handling/methods
8.
J Infect Dis ; 226(10): 1699-1703, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831183

ABSTRACT

We used daily real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results from 67 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a household transmission study, conducted April 2020-May 2021, to examine the trajectory of cycle threshold (Ct) values, an inverse correlate of viral RNA concentration. Ct values varied across RT-PCR platforms and by participant age. Specimens collected from children and adolescents had higher Ct values and adults aged ≥50 years showed lower Ct values than adults aged 18-49 years. Ct values were lower on days when participants reported experiencing symptoms, with the lowest Ct value occurring 2-6 days after symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19 Testing , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(10): 1698-1705, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806306

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic incited unprecedented demand for assays that detect viral nucleic acids, viral proteins, and corresponding antibodies. The 320 molecular diagnostics in receipt of US Food and Drug Administration emergency use authorization mainly focus on viral detection; however, no currently approved test can be used to infer infectiousness, that is, the presence of replicable virus. As the number of tests conducted increased, persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA positivity by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in some individuals led to concerns over quarantine guidelines. To this end, we attempted to design an assay that reduces the frequency of positive test results from individuals who do not shed culturable virus. We describe multiplex quantitative RT-PCR assays that detect genomic RNA (gRNA) and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) species of SARS-CoV-2, including spike, nucleocapsid, membrane, envelope, and ORF8. Viral RNA abundances calculated from these assays were compared with antigen presence, self-reported symptoms, and culture outcome (virus isolation) using samples from a 14-day longitudinal household transmission study. By characterizing the clinical and molecular dynamics of infection, we show that sgRNA detection has higher predictive value for culture outcome compared to detection of gRNA alone. Our findings suggest that sgRNA presence correlates with active infection and may help identify individuals shedding culturable virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Self Report , Longitudinal Studies , RNA, Guide , COVID-19/diagnosis
10.
Pediatrics ; 149(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Examine age differences in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission risk from primary cases and infection risk among household contacts and symptoms among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: People with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nashville, Tennessee and central and western Wisconsin and their household contacts were followed daily for 14 days to ascertain symptoms and secondary transmission events. Households were enrolled between April 2020 and April 2021. Secondary infection risks (SIR) by age of the primary case and contacts were estimated using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: The 226 primary cases were followed by 198 (49%) secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections among 404 household contacts. Age group-specific SIR among contacts ranged from 36% to 53%, with no differences by age. SIR was lower in primary cases age 12 to 17 years than from primary cases 18 to 49 years (risk ratio [RR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.91). SIR was 55% and 45%, respectively, among primary case-contact pairs in the same versus different age group (RR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.22). SIR was highest among primary case-contact pairs age ≥65 years (76%) and 5 to 11 years (69%). Among secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections, 19% were asymptomatic; there was no difference in the frequency of asymptomatic infections by age group. CONCLUSIONS: Both children and adults can transmit and are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. SIR did not vary by age, but further research is needed to understand age-related differences in probability of transmission from primary cases by age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tennessee/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(4): 607-612, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703642

ABSTRACT

Reduced COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) has been observed with increasing predominance of SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) variant. Two-dose VE against laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (symptomatic and asymptomatic) was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying vaccination status in a prospective rural community cohort of 1266 participants aged ≥12 years. Between November 3, 2020 and December 7, 2021, VE was 56% for mRNA COVID-19 vaccines overall, 65% for Moderna, and 50% for Pfizer-BioNTech. VE when Delta predominated (June to December 2021) was 54% for mRNA COVID-19 vaccines overall, 59% for Moderna, and 52% for Pfizer-BioNTech.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccine Efficacy , Wisconsin/epidemiology
12.
Vaccine ; 40(1): 122-132, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550126

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about COVID-19 vaccination intent among people experiencing homelessness. This study assesses surveyed COVID-19 vaccination intent among adult homeless shelter residents and staff and identifies factors associated with vaccine deliberation (responded "undecided") and reluctance (responded "no"), including time trends. METHODS: From 11/1/2020-2/28/21, we conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys at nine shelters in King County, WA as part of ongoing community-based SARS-CoV-2 surveillance. We used a multinomial model to identify characteristics associated with vaccine deliberation and reluctance. RESULTS: A total of 969 unique staff (n = 297) and residents (n = 672) participated and provided 3966 survey responses. Among residents, 53.7% (n = 361) were vaccine accepting, 28.1% reluctant, 17.6% deliberative, and 0.6% already vaccinated, whereas among staff 56.2% were vaccine accepting, 14.1% were reluctant, 16.5% were deliberative, and 13.1% already vaccinated at their last survey. We observed higher odds of vaccine deliberation or reluctance among Black/African American individuals, those who did not receive a seasonal influenza vaccine, and those with lower educational attainment. There was no significant trend towards vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Strong disparities in vaccine intent based on race, education, and prior vaccine history were observed. Increased vaccine intent over the study period was not detected. An intersectional, person-centered approach to addressing health inequities by public health authorities planning vaccination campaigns in shelters is recommended. Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT04141917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Washington
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have shown that vaccination can reduce viral replication to attenuate progression of influenza-associated lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). However, clinical studies are conflicting, possibly due to use of non-specific outcomes reflecting a mix of large and small airway LRTI lacking specificity for acute lung or organ injury. METHODS: We developed a global ordinal scale to differentiate large and small airway LRTI in hospitalized adults with influenza using physiologic features and interventions (PFIs): vital signs, laboratory and radiographic findings, and clinical interventions. We reviewed the literature to identify common PFIs across 9 existing scales of pneumonia and sepsis severity. To characterize patients using this scale, we applied the scale to an antiviral clinical trial dataset where these PFIs were measured through routine clinical care in adults hospitalized with influenza-associated LRTI during the 2010-2013 seasons. RESULTS: We evaluated 12 clinical parameters among 1020 adults; 210 (21%) had laboratory-confirmed influenza, with a median severity score of 4.5 (interquartile range, 2-8). Among influenza cases, median age was 63 years, 20% were hospitalized in the prior 90 days, 50% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 22% had congestive heart failure. Primary influencers of higher score included pulmonary infiltrates on imaging (48.1%), heart rate ≥110 beats/minute (41.4%), oxygen saturation <93% (47.6%) and respiratory rate >24 breaths/minute (21.0%). Key PFIs distinguishing patients with severity < or ≥8 (upper quartile) included infiltrates (27.1% vs 90.0%), temperature ≥ 39.1°C or <36.0°C (7.1% vs 27.1%), respiratory rate >24 breaths/minute (7.9% vs 47.1%), heart rate ≥110 beats/minute (29.3% vs 65.7%), oxygen saturation <90% (14.3% vs 31.4%), white blood cell count >15,000 (5.0% vs 27.2%), and need for invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation (2.1% vs 15.7%). CONCLUSION: We developed a scale in adults hospitalized with influenza-associated LRTI demonstrating a broad distribution of physiologic severity which may be useful for future studies evaluating the disease attenuating effects of influenza vaccination or other therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Middle Aged
14.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(1): 59-67, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460123

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children compared with adults are needed to inform COVID-19 risk communication and prevention strategies, including COVID-19 vaccination policies for children. Objective: To compare incidence rates and clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection among adults and children and estimated household infection risks within a prospective household cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Households with at least 1 child aged 0 to 17 years in selected counties in Utah and New York City, New York, were eligible for enrollment. From September 2020 through April 2021, participants self-collected midturbinate nasal swabs for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2 and responded to symptom questionnaires each week. Participants also self-collected additional respiratory specimens with onset of COVID-19-like illness. For children unable to self-collect respiratory specimens, an adult caregiver collected the specimens. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was incident cases of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, including asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. Additional measures were the asymptomatic fraction of infection calculated by dividing incidence rates of asymptomatic infection by rates of any infection, clinical characteristics of infection, and household infection risks. Primary outcomes were compared by participant age group. Results: A total of 1236 participants in 310 households participated in surveillance, including 176 participants (14%) who were aged 0 to 4 years, 313 (25%) aged 5 to 11 years, 163 (13%) aged 12 to 17 years, and 584 (47%) 18 years or older. Overall incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 3.8 (95% CI, 2.4-5.9) and 7.7 (95% CI, 4.1-14.5) per 1000 person-weeks among the Utah and New York City cohorts, respectively. Site-adjusted incidence rates per 1000 person-weeks were similar by age group: 6.3 (95% CI, 3.6-11.0) for children 0 to 4 years, 4.4 (95% CI, 2.5-7.5) for children 5 to 11 years, 6.0 (95% CI, 3.0-11.7) for children 12 to 17 years, and 5.1 (95% CI, 3.3-7.8) for adults (≥18 years). The asymptomatic fractions of infection by age group were 52%, 50%, 45%, and 12% among individuals aged 0 to 4 years, 5 to 11 years, 12 to 17 years, and 18 years or older, respectively. Among 40 households with 1 or more SARS-CoV-2 infections, the mean risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among all enrolled household members was 52% (range, 11%-100%), with higher risks in New York City compared with Utah (80% [95% CI, 64%-91%] vs 44% [95% CI, 36%-53%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, children had similar incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with adults, but a larger proportion of infections among children were asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Disease Susceptibility , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Utah/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(Supplement_1):S165-S165, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1387985

ABSTRACT

Background: Social distancing measures, such as shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders, are recommended for control of community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Few studies, however, have characterized the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infections in households. Method(s): We conducted a case-ascertained study of household transmission in Nashville, TN starting in April 2020, after recommendations to stay at home were enacted. Index cases were ambulatory patients identified through clinical RT-PCR testing at Vanderbilt walk-in-clinics dispersed across the Nashville metropolitan area. For this study, the index case was the first person presenting with respiratory or compatible symptoms in a household and who lived with at least one other household member. After informed consent was obtained, household members were remotely trained in the self-collection of nasal swabs and use of REDCap electronic questionnaires. Household members completed daily symptom diaries and collected daily nasal swabs for 14 days. Contact patterns within households before and after disease onset were ascertained. Nasal swab samples were tested using RT-PCR at an academic research laboratory. Result(s): At the time of writing, 18 families were enrolled (including 18 index cases and 34 household members) with at least 1 follow-up nasal swab tested. The median age of index cases and household members was 37 years (IQR: 26-46) and 27 years (15-39), respectively. The median number of days from index patient onset of symptoms to first sample collected in the household was 4 (2-5). Before onset of symptoms, 83% of index cases spent >4 hours in the same room with at least one other household member, whereas after disease onset and diagnosis, 44% did. Among 34 non-index household members, 18 (53%) had a positive test during follow-up;the median number of days from index case's symptoms onset to first positive detection in a household member was 4.5 (3-5) days. Interestingly, 13 (72%) of 18 secondary infections were detected within the first 3 days of follow-up, whereas 5 (28%) were detected during subsequent days. Conclusion(s): These observations suggest that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within households is high, with many infections detected during the initial days of study follow-up.

17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5152): 1633-1637, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005170

ABSTRACT

To prevent further transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), CDC currently recommends that persons who have been in close contact with someone with SARS-CoV-2 infection should quarantine (stay away from other persons) for 14 days after the last known contact.* However, quarantine might be difficult to maintain for a prolonged period. A shorter quarantine might improve compliance, and CDC recommends two options to reduce the duration of quarantine for close contacts without symptoms, based on local circumstances and availability of testing: 1) quarantine can end on day 10 without a test or 2) quarantine can end on day 7 after receiving a negative test result.† However, shorter quarantine might permit ongoing disease transmission from persons who develop symptoms or become infectious near the end of the recommended 14-day period. Interim data from an ongoing study of household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed to understand the proportion of household contacts that had detectable virus after a shortened quarantine period. Persons who were household contacts of index patients completed a daily symptom diary and self-collected respiratory specimens for 14 days. Specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Among 185 household contacts enrolled, 109 (59%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 at any time; 76% (83/109) of test results were positive within 7 days, and 86% (94 of 109) were positive within 10 days after the index patient's illness onset date. Among household contacts who received negative SARS-CoV-2 test results and were asymptomatic through day 7, there was an 81% chance (95% confidence interval [CI] = 67%-90%) of remaining asymptomatic and receiving negative RT-PCR test results through day 14; this increased to 93% (95% CI = 78%-98%) for household members who were asymptomatic with negative RT-PCR test results through day 10. Although SARS-CoV-2 quarantine periods shorter than 14 days might be easier to adhere to, there is a potential for onward transmission from household contacts released before day 14.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Tennessee/epidemiology , Time Factors , Wisconsin/epidemiology
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1631-1634, 2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911205

ABSTRACT

Improved understanding of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), within households could aid control measures. However, few studies have systematically characterized the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in U.S. households (1). Previously reported transmission rates vary widely, and data on transmission rates from children are limited. To assess household transmission, a case-ascertained study was conducted in Nashville, Tennessee, and Marshfield, Wisconsin, commencing in April 2020. In this study, index patients were defined as the first household members with COVID-19-compatible symptoms who received a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test result, and who lived with at least one other household member. After enrollment, index patients and household members were trained remotely by study staff members to complete symptom diaries and obtain self-collected specimens, nasal swabs only or nasal swabs and saliva samples, daily for 14 days. For this analysis, specimens from the first 7 days were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using CDC RT-PCR protocols.† A total of 191 enrolled household contacts of 101 index patients reported having no symptoms on the day of the associated index patient's illness onset, and among these 191 contacts, 102 had SARS-CoV-2 detected in either nasal or saliva specimens during follow-up, for a secondary infection rate of 53% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46%-60%). Among fourteen households in which the index patient was aged <18 years, the secondary infection rate from index patients aged <12 years was 53% (95% CI = 31%-74%) and from index patients aged 12-17 years was 38% (95% CI = 23%-56%). Approximately 75% of secondary infections were identified within 5 days of the index patient's illness onset, and substantial transmission occurred whether the index patient was an adult or a child. Because household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is common and can occur rapidly after the index patient's illness onset, persons should self-isolate immediately at the onset of COVID-like symptoms, at the time of testing as a result of a high risk exposure, or at the time of a positive test result, whichever comes first. Concurrent to isolation, all members of the household should wear a mask when in shared spaces in the household.§.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family Characteristics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 807-812, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes a range of illness severity. Mild illness has been reported, but whether illness severity correlates with infectivity is unknown. We describe the public health investigation of a mildly ill, nonhospitalized COVID-19 case who traveled to China. METHODS: The case was a Maricopa County resident with multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive specimens collected on 22 January 2020. Contacts were persons exposed to the case on or after the day before case diagnostic specimen collection. Contacts were monitored for 14 days after last known exposure. High-risk contacts had close, prolonged case contact (≥ 10 minutes within 2 m). Medium-risk contacts wore all US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended personal protective equipment during interactions. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP/OP) specimens were collected from the case and high-risk contacts and tested for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Paired case NP/OP specimens were collected for SARS-CoV-2 testing at 11 time points. In 8 pairs (73%), ≥ 1 specimen tested positive or indeterminate, and in 3 pairs (27%) both tested negative. Specimens collected 18 days after diagnosis tested positive. Sixteen contacts were identified; 11 (69%) had high-risk exposure, including 1 intimate contact, and 5 (31%) had medium-risk exposure. In total, 35 high-risk contact NP/OP specimens were collected for SARS-CoV-2 testing; all 35 pairs (100%) tested negative. CONCLUSIONS: This report demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause mild illness and result in positive tests for up to 18 days after diagnosis, without evidence of transmission to close contacts. These data might inform public health strategies to manage individuals with asymptomatic infection or mild illness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Arizona , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Travel
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(8): 1671-1678, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737802

ABSTRACT

We describe the contact investigation for an early confirmed case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in the United States. Contacts of the case-patient were identified, actively monitored for symptoms, interviewed for a detailed exposure history, and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) and ELISA. Fifty contacts were identified and 38 (76%) were interviewed, of whom 11 (29%) reported unprotected face-to-face interaction with the case-patient. Thirty-seven (74%) had respiratory specimens tested by rRT-PCR, and all tested negative. Twenty-three (46%) had ELISA performed on serum samples collected ≈6 weeks after exposure, and none had detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Among contacts who were tested, no secondary transmission was identified in this investigation, despite unprotected close interactions with the infectious case-patient.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Public Health/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Washington/epidemiology
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