Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Vaccine ; 41(19): 3047-3057, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294362


Q fever is a highly infectious zoonosis caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The worldwide distribution of Q fever suggests a need for vaccines that are more efficacious, affordable, and does not induce severe adverse reactions in vaccine recipients with pre-existing immunity against Q fever. Potential Q fever vaccine antigens include lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and several C. burnetii surface proteins. Antibodies elicited by purified C. burnetii lipopolysaccharide (LPS) correlate with protection against Q fever, while antigens encoded by adenoviral vectored vaccines can induce cellular immune responses which aid clearing of intracellular pathogens. In the present study, the immunogenicity and the protection induced by adenoviral vectored constructs formulated with the addition of LPS were assessed. Multiple vaccine constructs encoding single or fusion antigens from C. burnetii were synthesised. The adenoviral vectored vaccine constructs alone elicited strong cellular immunity, but this response was not correlative with protection in mice. However, vaccination with LPS was significantly associated with lower weight loss post-bacterial challenge independent of co-administration with adenoviral vaccine constructs, supporting further vaccine development based on LPS.

Adenovirus Vaccines , Coxiella burnetii , Q Fever , Animals , Mice , Coxiella burnetii/genetics , Q Fever/prevention & control , Lipopolysaccharides , Bacterial Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination , Immunization , Adenoviridae/genetics
Science ; 371(6528): 521-526, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093836


Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate sensors of viruses and can augment early immune responses and contribute to protection. We hypothesized that MAIT cells may have inherent adjuvant activity in vaccine platforms that use replication-incompetent adenovirus vectors. In mice and humans, ChAdOx1 (chimpanzee adenovirus Ox1) immunization robustly activated MAIT cells. Activation required plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC)-derived interferon (IFN)-α and monocyte-derived interleukin-18. IFN-α-induced, monocyte-derived tumor necrosis factor was also identified as a key secondary signal. All three cytokines were required in vitro and in vivo. Activation of MAIT cells positively correlated with vaccine-induced T cell responses in human volunteers and MAIT cell-deficient mice displayed impaired CD8+ T cell responses to multiple vaccine-encoded antigens. Thus, MAIT cells contribute to the immunogenicity of adenovirus vectors, with implications for vaccine design.

Adenoviridae/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Nat Med ; 27(2): 279-288, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065913


More than 190 vaccines are currently in development to prevent infection by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Animal studies suggest that while neutralizing antibodies against the viral spike protein may correlate with protection, additional antibody functions may also be important in preventing infection. Previously, we reported early immunogenicity and safety outcomes of a viral vector coronavirus vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), in a single-blinded phase 1/2 randomized controlled trial of healthy adults aged 18-55 years ( NCT04324606 ). Now we describe safety and exploratory humoral and cellular immunogenicity of the vaccine, from subgroups of volunteers in that trial, who were subsequently allocated to receive a homologous full-dose (SD/SD D56; n = 20) or half-dose (SD/LD D56; n = 32) ChAdOx1 booster vaccine 56 d following prime vaccination. Previously reported immunogenicity data from the open-label 28-d interval prime-boost group (SD/SD D28; n = 10) are also presented to facilitate comparison. Additionally, we describe volunteers boosted with the comparator vaccine (MenACWY; n = 10). In this interim report, we demonstrate that a booster dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is safe and better tolerated than priming doses. Using a systems serology approach we also demonstrate that anti-spike neutralizing antibody titers, as well as Fc-mediated functional antibody responses, including antibody-dependent neutrophil/monocyte phagocytosis, complement activation and natural killer cell activation, are substantially enhanced by a booster dose of vaccine. A booster dose of vaccine induced stronger antibody responses than a dose-sparing half-dose boost, although the magnitude of T cell responses did not increase with either boost dose. These data support the two-dose vaccine regime that is now being evaluated in phase 3 clinical trials.

Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult